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Addressing the Plight of Poor Households by Zero-Rating VAT on Basic Commodities in Namibia


  • Ojijo Odhiambo

    () (UNDP, Namibia)

  • John E. Odada

    () (University of Namibia)


Though it is classified as an upper middle-income country and has an estimated annual gross national income (GNI) per capita of US$4,210, Namibia still faces the twin problems of relatively high levels of poverty and high income inequality. Difficult economic times began in 2008 as real economic growth dropped to 4.3 per cent from a high of 12 per cent in 2004, while cost-of-living inflation rose to a high of 10.4 per cent from a low of 2.3 per cent in 2003. The rate of unemployment (broad definition) grew to 51.2 per cent. Thus many poor households faced a rising cost of living without reliable sources of income. Their already dire situation was exacerbated by inauspicious climatic and soil conditions, which severely limit the role of subsistence farming as a viable source of livelihood in the country. (?)

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  • Ojijo Odhiambo & John E. Odada, 2010. "Addressing the Plight of Poor Households by Zero-Rating VAT on Basic Commodities in Namibia," One Pager 118, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
  • Handle: RePEc:ipc:opager:118

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    Addressing the Plight of Poor Households by Zero-Rating VAT on Basic Commodities in Namibia;

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