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Bank Efficiency and Market Structure: What Determines Banking Spreads in Armenia?


  • Mr. Holger Floerkemeier
  • Ms. Era Dabla-Norris


Despite far-reaching banking sector reforms and a prolonged period of macroeconomic stability and strong economic growth, financial intermediation in Armenia has lagged behind other transition countries, and interest rate spreads have remained higher than in most Central and Eastern European transition countries. This paper examines the determinants of interest rate spreads and margins in Armenia using a bank-level panel dataset for the period 2002 to 2006. We find that bank-specific factors, such as bank size, liquidity, and market power, as well as the market structure within which banks operate, explain a large proportion of crossbank, cross-time variation in spreads and margins. The results suggest that there is a large potential to increase cost efficiency and competition in the banking system.

Suggested Citation

  • Mr. Holger Floerkemeier & Ms. Era Dabla-Norris, 2007. "Bank Efficiency and Market Structure: What Determines Banking Spreads in Armenia?," IMF Working Papers 2007/134, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:2007/134

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    1. Soedarmono, Wahyoe & Tarazi, Amine, 2013. "Bank opacity, intermediation cost and globalization: Evidence from a sample of publicly traded banks in Asia," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 91-100.
    2. Fungáčová, Zuzana & Poghosyan, Tigran, 2011. "Determinants of bank interest margins in Russia: Does bank ownership matter?," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 481-495.
    3. Khurshid Djalilov & Jens Hölscher, 2016. "Comparative Analyses Of The Banking Environment In Transition Countries," Economic Annals, Faculty of Economics, University of Belgrade, vol. 61(208), pages 7-26, January -.
    4. Nizar, Muhammad Afdi & Mansur, Alfan, 2021. "Can the Indonesian banking industry benefit from a risk-based deposit insurance system?," MPRA Paper 109083, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Poghosyan, Tigran, 2010. "Re-examining the impact of foreign bank participation on interest margins in emerging markets," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 390-403, December.
    6. Liang, Lien-Wen & Dash Altankhuyag, 2019. "Impact of Banking Supervision on the Cost-Efficiency of Banks: A Study of Five Developing Asian Countries," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 9(2), pages 213-231, February.
    7. Simplice Asongu & Rexon Nting & Joseph Nnanna, 2020. "Market power and cost efficiency in the African banking industry," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 47(6), pages 1247-1264, May.
    8. Chuling Chen, 2009. "Bank Efficiency in Sub-Saharan African Middle Income Countries," IMF Working Papers 2009/014, International Monetary Fund.
    9. David Dyker & Michael Emerson & Michael Gasiorek & Peter Holmes & Malgorzata Jakubiak & Andre Jungmittag & Vicki Korchagin & Alina Kudina & Evgeny Polyakov & Andrei Roudoi & Gevorg Torosyan, 2008. "Economic Feasibility, General Economic Impact and Implications of a Free Trade Agreement Between the European Union and Armenia," CASE Network Reports 0080, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
    10. Stephene Maende & Joseph Mutana & Michael Munga, 2018. "Analyzing High Interest Rate Spreads in Kenya: Panel Data Approach," International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, vol. 8(7), pages 312-327, July.
    11. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Size, efficiency, market power, and economies of scale in the African banking sector," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 5(1), pages 1-22, December.
    12. Suren Pakhchanyan & Jörg Prokop & Gor Sahakyan, 2018. "Drivers of Bank Solvency, Risk Provisioning and Profitability in the Armenian Banking System," Journal of Emerging Market Finance, Institute for Financial Management and Research, vol. 17(3), pages 307-332, December.
    13. Arezoo GHASEMI, & Malihe ROSTAMI, 2016. "Determinants Of Interest Rate Spread In Banking Industry," EcoForum, "Stefan cel Mare" University of Suceava, Romania, Faculty of Economics and Public Administration - Economy, Business Administration and Tourism Department., vol. 5(1), pages 1-46, January.
    14. Papavangjeli, Meri & Leka, Eralda, 2016. "Përcaktuesit mikro- dhe makroekonomikë të marzhit neto të interesave në sistemin bankar shqiptar (2002-2014) [Micro- and macroeconomic determinants of net interest margin in the Albanian banking sy," MPRA Paper 78604, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Jun 2016.
    15. King Banaian, 2009. "Macroeconomic Impact of the Financial Crisis on Armenia," Working Papers 2009-1, Saint Cloud State University, Department of Economics, revised 14 Aug 2009.
    16. Sami Ben Naceur & Raja Almarzoqi, 2015. "Determinants of Bank Interest Margins in the Caucasus and Central Asia," IMF Working Papers 2015/087, International Monetary Fund.
    17. Mr. Calixte Ahokpossi, 2013. "Determinants of Bank Interest Margins in Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 2013/034, International Monetary Fund.
    18. International Monetary Fund, 2014. "Republic of Azerbaijan: Selected Issues," IMF Staff Country Reports 2014/160, International Monetary Fund.
    19. Julide Yalcinkaya Koyuncu, 2011. "Foreign Bank Presence and Bank Spreads: Evidence from Turkey," Czech Economic Review, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, vol. 5(1), pages 064-075, March.
    20. Brown, Martin & Maurer, Maria Rueda & Pak, Tamara & Tynaev, Nurlanbek, 2009. "The impact of banking sector reform in a transition economy: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1677-1687, September.
    21. Pohl, Birte, 2010. "Foreign Banks in Sub-Saharan Africa - Do North-South and South-South Banks Induce Different Effects on Domestic Banks?," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Hannover 2010 10, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.

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    WP; bank; market share; loan;
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