Migration: A Case of Gujarat
Despite massive investments in rural development programmes during the last ten years, the problem of unemployment has assumed alarming proportions causing migration of the rural population. Although there are several factors responsible, lack of employment opportunities in the rural sector and the ‘urban pull’ factor caused by relatively greater employment opportunities are equally important. Over the years, economic factors have eclipsed other factors like environment, socio-cultural, political etc. Besides, along with selective permanent migration, temporal, spatial and seasonal migration has also become common. This is due to the greater absorption capacity of the rural labour force in commercial agriculture, new industrial activities, dam construction and field channels of irrigation etc. Experience has also shown that migration was of higher magnitude and in greater grequency in the underdeveloped regions and in tribal regions. Although it is difficult to assess the qualitative and quantitative impact of rural migration in the under developed regions, two effects can be pointed out, 1) due to the migration there would be a decline in the qualitative aspect of human resources which are so vital in devising need based developmental plans for rural development, 2) once the migrants come under the influence of the urban environmental factors, the ‘rural pull’ factor may not be so attractive any longer.
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