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Swimming Against the Tide: Strategies for Improving Equity in Health


  • Nancy Birdsall
  • Robert Hecht


The evidence shows that government spending for health in many developing countries benefits the well-to-do more than the poor. However, a combination of favorable political forces and sound public policies can shift the focus of government expenditures toward the poor. Doing this is an essential part of any effective poverty reduction program in developing countries.

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  • Nancy Birdsall & Robert Hecht, 1995. "Swimming Against the Tide: Strategies for Improving Equity in Health," Research Department Publications 4006, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4006

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    1. Francesco Giavazzi & Marco Pagano, 1991. "The Advantage of Tying One's Hands: EMS Discipline and Central Bank Credibility," NBER Chapters,in: International Volatility and Economic Growth: The First Ten Years of The International Seminar on Macroeconomics, pages 303-330 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Paul R Masson & Morris Goldstein & Jacob A. Frenkel, 1991. "Characteristics of a Successful Exchange Rate System," IMF Occasional Papers 82, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Devarajan, Shantayanan & Rodrik, Dani, 1991. "Do the benefits of fixed exchange rates outweigh their costs? The Franc Zone in Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 777, The World Bank.
    4. Svensson, Lars E. O., 1994. "Fixed exchange rates as a means to price stability: What have we learned?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 447-468, April.
    5. Velasco, A., 1993. "A Model of Endogenous Fiscal Deficits and Delayed Fiscal Reforms," Working Papers 93-04, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
    6. Kiguel, Miguel A. & Liviatan, Nissan, 1992. "Stopping three big inflations (Argentina, Brazil, and Peru)," Policy Research Working Paper Series 999, The World Bank.
    7. Peter J Montiel & Bijan B. Aghevli & Mohsin S. Khan, 1991. "Exchange Rate Policy in Developing Countries; Some Analytical Issues," IMF Occasional Papers 78, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Stefania Bazzoni & Karim A. Nashashibi, 1993. "Alternative Exchange Rate Strategies and Fiscal Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 93/68, International Monetary Fund.
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    1. repec:idb:idbbks:379 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Michael Gavin & Ricardo Hausmann & Eduardo Lora & Carmen Pagés & William D. Savedoff & Miguel Székely & Glenn D. Westley, 1999. "Facing Up to Inequality in Latin America," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 66278 edited by Eduardo Lora, February.

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