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Negation Markers in Kalmyk


  • Vlada V. Baranova

    () (National Research University Higher School of Economics)


Focusing on changes to the system of negation in Kalmyk, this paper will discuss the diachronic development of the expression of negation and will examine the results of grammaticalization process in negation system on synchronous level with special attention to innovations occur in colloquial speech. The goal of this paper is to report on a corpus-based study comparing the syntactic form, scope and pragmatic use of negative markers in Kalmyk. I will try to describe patterns of pragmatic language use of negative affixes or full negative copulas in written and spoken Kalmyk and to find explanations to both synchronic variation and to changes in a diachronic perspective. The paper deals with semantic, pragmatic, and morphosyntactic properties of all these negative markers, however, it focuses on the competition of two main markers of sentential negation and its contracted variants in Kalmyk used both in nominal clauses and in declarative sentences. I argue that there is new cycle of development in Kalmyk and the process of specialization goes through ambiguity of new negative marker to the pragmatic and semantic differentiation depending on the scope of negation and the information structure of sentence

Suggested Citation

  • Vlada V. Baranova, 2015. "Negation Markers in Kalmyk," HSE Working papers WP BRP 24/LNG/2015, National Research University Higher School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hig:wpaper:24/lng/2015

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    negation; diachronic development of negation; Jespersen’s cycle; Kalmyk;

    JEL classification:

    • Z - Other Special Topics

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