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Causality and Regime Inference in a Markov Switching VAR


  • Warne, Anders

    () (Research Department, Central Bank of Sweden)


This paper analyses three Granger noncausality hypotheses within a conditionally Gaussian MS-VAR model. Noncausality in mean is based on Granger´s original concept for linear predictors by defining noncausality from the 1-step ahead forecast error variance for the conditional expectation. Noncausality in mean-variance concerns the conditional forecast error variance, while noncausality in distribution refers to the conditional distribution of the forecast errors. Necessary and sufficient parametric conditions for noncausality are presented for all hypotheses. As an illustration, the hypotheses are tested using monthly postwar U.S. data on money and income. We find that money is not Granger causal in mean for income, but Granger causal in mean-variance, i.e there is unique information in money for predicting the next period regime and the regime affects the uncertainty about the income forecast.

Suggested Citation

  • Warne, Anders, 2000. "Causality and Regime Inference in a Markov Switching VAR," Working Paper Series 118, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:rbnkwp:0118

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Barnett, William A. & Chen, Guo, 2015. "Bifurcation of Macroeconometric Models and Robustness of Dynamical Inferences," Foundations and Trends(R) in Econometrics, now publishers, vol. 8(1-2), pages 1-144, September.
    2. Balcilar, Mehmet & Gungor, Hasan & Hammoudeh, Shawkat, 2015. "The time-varying causality between spot and futures crude oil prices: A regime switching approach," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 51-71.
    3. repec:eee:rensus:v:75:y:2017:i:c:p:68-85 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Warne Anders & Vredin Anders, 2006. "Unemployment and Inflation Regimes," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 10(2), pages 1-52, May.
    5. Kandemir Kocaaslan, Ozge, 2013. "The causal link between energy and output growth: Evidence from Markov switching Granger causality," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1196-1206.
    6. Andrea Cipollini & Kostas Mouratidis & Nicola Spagnolo, 2008. "Evaluating currency crises: the case of the European monetary system," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 11-27, August.
    7. Bildirici, Melike, 2012. "Economic Growth and Electricity Consumption in Africa and Asia: MS-VAR and MS-GRANGER Causality Analysis," MPRA Paper 40515, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Maximo Camacho, 2004. "Vector smooth transition regression models for US GDP and the composite index of leading indicators," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(3), pages 173-196.
    9. Balcilar, Mehmet & Ozdemir, Zeynel Abidin, 2013. "The causal nexus between oil prices and equity market in the U.S.: A regime switching model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 271-282.
    10. Matthieu Droumaguet & Tomasz Wozniak, 2012. "Bayesian Testing of Granger Causality in Markov-Switching VARs," Economics Working Papers ECO2012/06, European University Institute.
    11. repec:sbe:breart:v:25:y:2005:i:2:a:2504 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. M. Portugal & I.A. de Morais, 2004. "STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN THE BRAZILIAN DEMAND FOR IMPORTS: A regime switching approach," Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings 346, Econometric Society.
    13. Igor Alexandre Clemente de Morais & Marcelo Savino Portugal, 2003. "Business Cycle in the Industrial Production of Brazilian States," Anais do XXXI Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 31th Brazilian Economics Meeting] e75, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    14. Chen, Shyh-Wei & Shen, Chung-Hua, 2007. "A sneeze in the U.S., a cough in Japan, but pneumonia in Taiwan? An application of the Markov-Switching vector autoregressive model," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 1-14, January.
    15. Edoardo Otranto, 2005. "The multi-chain Markov switching model," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(7), pages 523-537.

    More about this item


    Granger causality; Markov process; Regime switching; Vector autoregression;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models

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