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Congestion Charges in Stockholm: How Have They Affected Retail Revenues?

Author

Listed:
  • Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov

    () (The Ratio Institute)

  • Rudholm, Niklas

    (The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI))

  • Rämme, Ulf

    (The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI))

Abstract

Did the introduction of congestion charges in Stockholm city reduce retail revenues? Data from 20 shopping malls - 8 within the toll area, and 12 outside the tool area - and from a sample of retail stores located along the main shopping streets was analyzed using an intervention-control approach. Favorable outcomes, such as reduced traffic, less emissions of carbon-dioxide, and perceived improvements in air quality and accessibility, do not seem to have been offset by reduced revenues for retailers located within the toll area.

Suggested Citation

  • Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov & Rudholm, Niklas & Rämme, Ulf, 2009. "Congestion Charges in Stockholm: How Have They Affected Retail Revenues?," Ratio Working Papers 134, The Ratio Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:ratioi:0134
    as

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    File URL: http://www.ratio.se/pdf/wp/sod_nr_ur_congestion.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov & Rudholm, Niklas & Rämme, Ulf, 2009. "Congestion charges and retail revenues: Results from the Stockholm road pricing trial," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 306-309, March.
    2. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    3. Quddus, Mohammed A. & Bell, Michael G.H. & Schmöcker, Jan-Dirk & Fonzone, Achille, 2007. "The impact of the congestion charge on the retail business in London: An econometric analysis," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 433-444, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Paul Cheshire & Gerard Dericks, 2013. "Regulation, Rents and 'Iconic Design': rent acquisition by design in the tightly constrained London office market," ERSA conference papers ersa13p1071, European Regional Science Association.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Road toll; congestion fee; congestion charge; retail revenues; retail profts;

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • H31 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - Household
    • L81 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce

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