IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

A Fixed-Effects Analysis of How Income Inequality in a Municipality Affects Individual Mortality in Norway

Listed author(s):
  • Kravdal, Øystein


    (Department of Economics)

Registered author(s):

    There is still much uncertainty about the impact of income inequality on health and mortality. Some studies have supported the original hypothesis about adverse effects, while others have shown no effects, and a few even indicated beneficial effects. In this investigation, register data covering the entire Norwegian population were used to estimate how income inequality in the municipality of residence, measured by the Gini coefficient, affected mortality in men and women aged 30-89 in the years 1980- 2002, net of their individual incomes. The total exposure time was about 55 million person years, and there were about 850000 deaths. Adverse effects were estimated when individual and average income and some other commonly used control variables were included in the models. However, because there are annual measurements in each municipality, the data provide a rare opportunity to include also municipality fixed-effects, to pick up time-invariant unobserved factors at that level. When this was done, there was actually more evidence for beneficial than for adverse effects. In addition to illustrating the potential importance of the fixed-effects approach, these findings should add to the scepticism about the existence of harmful health effects of income inequality, and especially in a Nordic context.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Paper provided by Oslo University, Health Economics Research Programme in its series HERO On line Working Paper Series with number 2006:5.

    in new window

    Length: 33 pages
    Date of creation: 04 Jun 2009
    Handle: RePEc:hhs:oslohe:2006_005
    Contact details of provider: Postal:
    HERO / Institute of Health Management and Health Economics P.O. Box 1089 Blindern, N-0317 Oslo, Norway

    Phone: 2307 5309
    Fax: 2307 5310
    Web page:

    More information through EDIRC

    No references listed on IDEAS
    You can help add them by filling out this form.

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:oslohe:2006_005. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Anbjørg Kolaas)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.