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Mongolia – Heaven For Foreign Consultants


  • Luvsanjamts, Lkham

    (Mongolian University of Science and Technology)

  • Söderberg, Marie

    () (European Institute of Japanese Studies)


In Mongolia with 2.5 million inhabitants, population density is extremely low. It has a sever climate. Three quarters of the countries territory are grasslands, with the remaining area being deserts or mountain areas. This description does not depict Mongolia as a very attractive place, but somehow, however, it managed to attract considerable amounts of foreign aid workers. Today Mongolia is the fifth most aid-dependent country in the world. The high dependency rate on foreign aid, raises the question if this limits the Mongolian policy options. Is high aid dependency connected to weak ownership of ones own development? The purpose of this paper is to analyse the concepts of ownership and partnership as well as institutional change in the aid relation with Mongolia. We will start by looking at Mongolia as a recipient. This will be followed by Mongolian development strategies and shifts taking place over time as well as processes of receiving aid. Then we will also compare Japanese and Swedish aid to Mongolia in the field of human resource development. We will start by looking at Japan as a donor and its processes for giving aid to Mongolia. We will have a case study in the field of human resource development. Then we will look at Swedish policy and processes for giving aid to Mongolia and make a case study of Swedish aid for human resource development.

Suggested Citation

  • Luvsanjamts, Lkham & Söderberg, Marie, 2005. "Mongolia – Heaven For Foreign Consultants," EIJS Working Paper Series 215, Stockholm School of Economics, The European Institute of Japanese Studies.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:eijswp:0215

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Corden, W Max & Neary, J Peter, 1982. "Booming Sector and De-Industrialisation in a Small Open Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(368), pages 825-848, December.
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    More about this item


    Japanese aid; Nordic aid; ODA for Mongolia; Japan-Mongolia; Sweden-Mongolia; partnership; ownership; institutional change;

    JEL classification:

    • A10 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - General
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • F35 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Aid
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • N15 - Economic History - - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations - - - Asia including Middle East
    • N35 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - Asia including Middle East
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East
    • R58 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Regional Development Planning and Policy

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