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Comment le don fabrique-t-il du social ?

Author

Listed:
  • Sylvain Bureau

    () (CRG - Centre de recherche en gestion - Polytechnique - X - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Corine Waroquiers

    (CRG - Centre de recherche en gestion - Polytechnique - X - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

Abstract

Loin d'une vision du tout marchand, le don reste une pratique structurante et structurelle du fonctionnement de nos économies capitalistes (Athané, 2011). Tout en étant façonné par la société où il intervient, le don fabrique dans le même temps notre monde social. Ni archaïque ni limité à quelques pratiques marginales, le don est essentiel, incontournable dans nos sociétés modernes. Mais si le don fait (toujours) notre humanité, il représente aussi un de ses grands mystères. Sans prétendre à la complétude ni même à l'exactitude, ce court papier appréhende trois pratiques contemporaines du don que nous présentons ici comme forme idéal-typique ; c'est-à-dire une construction intellectuelle qui permet d'accentuer délibérément certains traits de l'objet considéré pour mieux appréhender la complexité de phénomènes empiriques (Coenen-Huther, 2003; Weber, [1922] 1965). Pour mener ce travail de classification, nous nous fondons bien évidemment sur des travaux d'anthropologues et de sociologues mais nous y associons également des concepts issus de la théorie des organisations. C'est par ce croisement entre notions anthropologiques et problématiques gestionnaires que se singularise notre proposition. Le don implique de multiples instrumentations socialement construites ; pour comprendre la nature et le fonctionnement de celui-ci il faut caractériser les modèles de gestion (implicites ou formels) associés aux pratiques de don. Nous caractérisons ainsi le don circulaire fondé sur un modèle organisationnel clanique, le don altruiste rendu possible par les structures bureaucratiques et enfin le don relationnel qui repose principalement sur des organisations participatives. Si ces trois modalités ont une origine et des manifestations différentes, elles sont toutes opérantes dans nos sociétés. Nous présentons chaque forme de don en suivant leur ordre chronologique d'apparition dans l'histoire. Au-delà d'une description formelle, nous montrons que ces différents modèles sont producteurs de relations sociales distinctes. Pour finir, nous proposons un tableau de synthèse qui offre une première vision synoptique des principales formes de don actuellement pratiquées dans nos sociétés occidentales contemporaines.

Suggested Citation

  • Sylvain Bureau & Corine Waroquiers, 2013. "Comment le don fabrique-t-il du social ?," Working Papers hal-00867454, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-00867454 Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00867454
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Keywords

    don; modèle participatif; contre-don;

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