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La rationalité à l'épreuve de l'économie comportementale

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  • Laurent Denant-Boèmont

    () (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Olivier L’haridon

    () (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

Abstract

Ces trente dernières années ont connu un formidable développement d’un nouveau champ de l’analyse économique, l’économie comportementale. Initiée et fondée en partie sur les méthodes de l’économie expérimentale, ce nouveau champ disciplinaire a profondément renouvelé la vision des décisions des agents économiques et celle du fonctionnement des marchés. Cet article propose un éclairage critique sur le renouvellement de la vision de la rationalité des agents économiques proposé par l’économie comportementale. Dans les faits, la démonstration de l’existence de déviations par rapport aux représentations traditionnelles de la rationalité est le résultat du croisement de deux littératures. La première concerne les décisions dans l’incertain. La seconde s’intéresse aux décisions prises en interactions avec d’autres agents économiques. Le cadre d’étude est celui des jeux, des marchés et des décisions de groupe. En regard du premier ensemble de travaux, la question de la rationalité se porte sur la réalité d’une norme de comportement purement individuelle, liée à l’introspection. Le contexte de choix apparaît comme primordial aux décisions prises par les individus et cette porosité aux circonstances semble être la manifestation la plus saillante de la rationalité limitée. Pour le second ensemble de travaux, les résultats sont nettement plus ambigus et peuvent laisser perplexe. Dans certaines situations d’interaction stratégique ou de marché, la rationalité collective observée est proche de celle prédite par la théorie microéconomique traditionnelle. Mais dans d’autres, il s’avère que des éléments absents de la modélisation économique s’avèrent essentiels : préférences sociales, émotions, processus d’apprentissage. Cet apparent paradoxe montre l’importance d’enrichir le domaine même de la rationalité afin d’améliorer le pouvoir prédictif des théories économiques des comportements et des marchés.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Suggested Citation

  • Laurent Denant-Boèmont & Olivier L’haridon, 2013. "La rationalité à l'épreuve de l'économie comportementale," Post-Print halshs-00921070, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00921070
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00921070
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    Keywords

    théorie de jeux; incertitude; risque;

    JEL classification:

    • D90 - Microeconomics - - Micro-Based Behavioral Economics - - - General

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