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Modern Trade Theory for CGE Modelling: the Armington, Krugman and Melitz Models

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  • Dixon, Peter
  • Michael Jerie
  • Maureen Rimmer

Abstract

This paper is for CGE modelers and others interested in modern trade theory. The Armington specification of trade, assuming country-level product differentiation, has been central to CGE modelling for 40 years. Starting in the 1980s with Krugman and more recently Melitz, trade theorists have preferred specifications with firm-level product differentiation. We draw out the connections between the Armington, Krugman and Melitz models, deriving them as successively less restrictive special cases of an encompassing model. We then investigate optimality properties of the Melitz model, demonstrating that a Melitz general equilibrium is the solution to a global, cost-minimizing problem. This suggests that envelope theorems can be used in interpreting results from a Melitz model. Next we explain the Balistreri-Rutherford decomposition in which a Melitz general equilibrium model is broken into Melitz sectoral models combined with an Armington general equilibrium model. Balistreri and Rutherford see their decomposition as a basis of an iterative approach for solving Melitz general equilibrium models. We see it as a means for interpreting Melitz results as the outcome of an Armington simulation with additional shocks to productivity and preferences variables. With CGE modelers in mind, we report computational experience in solving a Melitz general equilibrium model using GEMPACK.

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  • Dixon, Peter & Michael Jerie & Maureen Rimmer, 2015. "Modern Trade Theory for CGE Modelling: the Armington, Krugman and Melitz Models," GTAP Technical Papers 4595, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University.
  • Handle: RePEc:gta:techpp:4595
    Note: GTAP Technical Paper No. 36
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    Cited by:

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    3. Zoryana Olekseyuk & Edward J. Balistreri, 2018. "Trade liberalization gains under different trade theories: a case study for Ukraine," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 45(3), pages 507-542, August.
    4. Kazuhiko Oyamada, 2017. "Behavioral Characteristics of Applied General Equilibrium Models with Variable Elasticity of Substitution between Varieties from Different Sources," EcoMod2017 10113, EcoMod.
    5. Kazuhiko Oyamada & Kaoru Nabeshima & Etsuyo Michida, 2015. "Analyses of EU RoHS/ELV Directives Based on an AGE Model with Melitz-type Trade Specification," EcoMod2015 8304, EcoMod.
    6. Nilsson, Lars, 2019. "Reflections on the economic modelling of free trade agreements," DG TRADE Chief Economist Notes 2019-2, Directorate General for Trade, European Commission.
    7. Kenneth W. Clements & Marc Jim M. Mariano & George Verikios, 2021. "Foreign-domestic substitution, import penetration and CGE modelling," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 53(35), pages 4080-4099, July.
    8. Maria Cipollina & David Laborde Debucquet & Luca Salvatici, 2017. "The tide that does not raise all boats: an assessment of EU preferential trade policies," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 153(1), pages 199-231, February.
    9. Hosoe, Nobuhiro, 2018. "Impact of border barriers, returning migrants, and trade diversion in Brexit: Firm exit and loss of variety," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 193-204.
    10. Luca Salvatici & Silvia Nenci, 2017. "New features, forgotten costs and counterfactual gains of the international trading system," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 592-633.
    11. Peter Dixon & Michael Jerie & Maureen Rimmer, 2019. "Melitz in GTAP Made Easy: the A2M Conversion Method and Result Interpretation," Journal of Global Economic Analysis, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, vol. 4(1), pages 97-127, June.
    12. Waschik, Robert, 2015. "Differentiated products, increasing returns to scale and heterogeneous firms in a CGE model of the Australian coal sector," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 521-529.
    13. Rose, Adam & Wei, Dan & Paul, Donald, 2018. "Economic consequences of and resilience to a disruption of petroleum trade: The role of seaports in U.S. energy security," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 584-615.
    14. Eddy Bekkers & Joseph Francois, 2018. "A Parsimonious Approach to Incorporate Firm Heterogeneity in CGE-Models," Journal of Global Economic Analysis, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, vol. 3(2), pages 1-68, December.
    15. Ken Itakura & Kazuhiko Oyamada, 2015. "Examining Trade Response of Armington-Krugman-Melitz Encompassing Module in a CGE Model," EcoMod2015 8695, EcoMod.
    16. Jafari, Yaghoob & Britz, Wolfgang, 2018. "Modelling heterogeneous firms and non-tariff measures in free trade agreements using Computable General Equilibrium," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 279-294.
    17. Wolfgang Britz & Dominique van der Mensbrugghe, 2018. "CGEBox: A Flexible, Modular and Extendable Framework for CGE Analysis in GAMS," Journal of Global Economic Analysis, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, vol. 3(2), pages 106-177, December.
    18. Erwin Corong & Thomas Hertel & Robert McDougall & Marinos Tsigas & Dominique van der Mensbrugghe, 2017. "The Standard GTAP Model, version 7," Journal of Global Economic Analysis, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, vol. 2(1), pages 1-119, June.
    19. Nobuhiro Hosoe, 2016. "Impact of Brexit: Firm Exit and Loss of Variety," GRIPS Discussion Papers 16-12, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
    20. Zeynep Akgul & Nelson B Villoria & Thomas W Hertel, 2016. "GTAP-HET: Introducing Firm Heterogeneity into the GTAP Model," Journal of Global Economic Analysis, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, vol. 1(1), pages 111-180, June.
    21. Oyamada, Kazuhiko, 2016. "Simulation analysis of the EU ELV/RoHS directives based on an applied general equilibrium model with Melitz-type trade specification," IDE Discussion Papers 587, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).

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