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Retour sur la régulation des émissions azotées dans le bassin rhénan : une analyse descriptive à partir des informations de la base de données "Tradable Rhine"

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  • Saulnier, J.

Abstract

La compréhension de la régulation des émissions azotées dans le bassin d’un cours d’eau nécessite d'avoir une bonne connaissance des milieux naturels concernés, des processus hydrologiques, du cadre institutionnel de régulation et des sources à l'origine des émissions. L’objectif de cet article est donc de décrire l’ensemble de ces éléments pour le bassin rhénan. Nous utilisons pour cela les informations de la base de données "Tradable_Rhine" qui regroupe des données depuis 1974 sur les différentes régions du bassin. Dans un premier temps nous dressons un portrait du bassin rhénan du point de vue de ses principales caractéristiques physiques et géopolitiques. Puis nous revenons sur la façon dont la ressource en eau du bassin a été gérée au cours du temps. Les voies d’apport d’émissions azotées dans les eaux et les responsabilités relatives de chaque secteur sont notamment présentées. Les techniques de production et l’évolution des facteurs contribuant au rejet d’émissions par les différents types de sources sont également analysées. Les résultats montrent que le secteur agricole joue désormais un rôle prépondérant dans les rejets d’émissions azotées. Cela s'explique principalement selon nous par l'utilisation plus intensive d'engrais azotés et par la concentration croissante des exploitations d’élevage qui contribue à la production et l'épandage de plus grandes quantités de lisiers. Dans l’industrie, nous constatons en outre que l’introduction de techniques d’épuration avancées a contribué à réduire significativement la part de ce secteur dans les émissions. La modernisation dans l’épuration des eaux résiduaires urbaines a quant à elle été plus tardive et moins importante. La réduction des émissions azotées dans ce secteur est donc, jusque là, restée plus modérée dans ce secteur que dans l’industrie.

Suggested Citation

  • Saulnier, J., 2007. "Retour sur la régulation des émissions azotées dans le bassin rhénan : une analyse descriptive à partir des informations de la base de données "Tradable Rhine"," Working Papers 200713, Grenoble Applied Economics Laboratory (GAEL).
  • Handle: RePEc:gbl:wpaper:200713
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    File URL: https://gael.univ-grenoble-alpes.fr/sites/gael/files/doc-recherche/WP/A2007/gael2007-17.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    REGULATION; EXTERNALITE; EMISSION AZOTEE; PERMIS NEGOCIABLE; TAXE; SUBVENTION; NORME; RESSOURCE EN EAU;

    JEL classification:

    • C80 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - General
    • Q00 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General - - - General
    • R52 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Land Use and Other Regulations

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