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El beneficio de los caminos rurales: ampliando oportunidades de ingreso para los pobres

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Abstract

Muchos estudios han evaluado los beneficios de los caminos rurales concentrándose en la reducción de costos monetarios y de tiempo en que los pobladores incurren para acceder a mercados de bienes e insumos o a servicios públicos clave. Esta investigación complementa dicho enfoque con una evaluación del impacto de este tipo de infraestructura sobre indicadores clave de bienestar como el ingreso y el gasto de los hogares atendidos. Con una muestra de hogares rurales de algunos de los distritos más pobres del Perú, este estudio compara hogares conectados a caminos rurales rehabilitados con hogares control cuidadosamente escogidos, mediante técnicas de propensity score matching. Los resultados muestran que las mejoras en la infraestructura rural de transporte pueden tener un impacto positivo sobre los ingresos rurales y su composición, ya que un camino en mejores condiciones amplía las oportunidades de generación de ingresos de los hogares, especialmente en actividades de empleo asalariado no agropecuario. El estudio identifica, sin embargo, que esta expansión de ingresos no viene aparejada con un incremento del gasto de consumo de los hogares; aparentemente, esto se debe a que el ingreso adicional se destina al ahorro y no al consumo, vía incrementos en el stock de ganado. Ello podría ocurrir porque la mayor accesibilidad a los mercados es percibida como transitoria por los hogares beneficiados por las mejoras en la infraestructura de caminos.

Suggested Citation

  • Javier Escobal & Carmen Ponce, 2003. "El beneficio de los caminos rurales: ampliando oportunidades de ingreso para los pobres," Documentos de Investigación dt40a, Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE).
  • Handle: RePEc:gad:doctra:dt40a Note: Documento de trabajo, 40
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    Cited by:

    1. Carlos Aparicio & Miguel A. Jaramillo & Cristina San Román, 2011. "Desarrollo de la infraestructura y reducción de la pobreza: el caso peruano," Working Papers 11-00, Centro de Investigación, Universidad del Pacífico, revised Sep 2011.
    2. World Bank, 2005. "Peru : Opportunities for All, Peru Poverty Assessment," World Bank Other Operational Studies 8809, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Carreteras; Ingresos de hogares; Empleo; Zonas rurales; Roads; Household income; Employment Rural areas; Peru;

    JEL classification:

    • H54 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Infrastructures
    • P25 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics
    • J17 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Value of Life; Foregone Income
    • R2 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis
    • J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor

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