IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Cost, Demand and Producer Price Changes

  • Claire Loupias


    (EPEE, TEPP (FR-CNRS 3126) Université d'Evry Val d'Essonne and CEPII)

  • Patrick Sevestre


    (Banque de France, SAMIC-DEMS-DGEI and Paris School of Economics, Université de Paris I - Panthéon Sorbonne)

We estimate an ordered probit model in order to explain the occurrence and magnitude of producer price changes in the French manufacturing sector. We use data consisting essentially of the Banque de France monthly business surveys, pooled over the years 1998-2005. Our results show that changes in the price of intermediate inputs are the main driver of producer price changes. Firms also appear to react significantly to changes in the producer price index of their industry. Variations in labor costs as well as in the production level also appear to increase the likelihood of a price change but their influence seems to be of a lesser importance. We also show that estimating an unconstrained dynamic model allows improving the estimation results as compared to those associated with a standard state-dependent model. Finally, our results point to an asymmetry in price adjustments. When they face a change in their costs, firms adjust their prices upward more often and more rapidly than they do it downward.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Centre d'Études des Politiques Économiques (EPEE), Université d'Evry Val d'Essonne in its series Documents de recherche with number 10-06.

in new window

Length: 55 pages
Date of creation: 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:eve:wpaper:10-06
Contact details of provider: Postal: 4, bld Francois Mitterand, 91025 Evry Cedex
Phone: +33 1 69 47 71 77
Fax: +33 1 69 47 70 50
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Blinder, Alan S, 1991. "Why Are Prices Sticky? Preliminary Results from an Interview Study," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(2), pages 89-96, May.
  2. Etienne Gagnon, 2009. "Price Setting During Low and High Inflation: Evidence from Mexico," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 124(3), pages 1221-1263, August.
  3. Fabiani, Silvia & Druant, Martine & Hernando, Ignacio & Kwapil, Claudia & Landau, Bettina & Loupias, Claire & Martins, Fernando & Matha, Thomas & Sabbatini, Roberto & Stahl, Harald & Stokman, Ad, 2006. "What Firms' Surveys Tell Us about Price-Setting Behavior in the Euro Area," MPRA Paper 808, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Apel, Mikael & Friberg, Richard & Hallsten, Kerstin, 2005. "Microfoundations of Macroeconomic Price Adjustment: Survey Evidence from Swedish Firms," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 37(2), pages 313-38, April.
  5. Oleksiy Kryvtsov & Peter J. Klenow, 2004. "State-Dependent or Time-Dependent Pricing: Does It Matter For Recent U.S. Inflation?," Computing in Economics and Finance 2004 277, Society for Computational Economics.
  6. Caballero, Ricardo J. & Engel, Eduardo M.R.A., 2007. "Price stickiness in Ss models: New interpretations of old results," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(Supplemen), pages 100-121, September.
  7. Sergio Rebelo & Nir Jaimovich & Martin Eichenbaum, 2010. "Reference Prices and Nominal Rigidities," 2010 Meeting Papers 1049, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  8. Levy, Daniel & Chen, Haipeng (Allan) & Ray, Sourav & Bergen, Mark, 2006. "Asymmetric Price Adjustment in the Small," MPRA Paper 1097, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Gábor Kátay, 2008. "Do Firms ProvideWage Insurance Against Shocks? – Evidence from Hungary," MNB Working Papers 2008/8, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (the central bank of Hungary).
  10. Sourav Ray & Haipeng (Allan) Chen & Mark Bergen & Daniel Levy, 2005. "Asymmetric Wholesale Pricing: Theory and Evidence," Working Papers 2005-02, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
  11. Card, David & Sullivan, Daniel G, 1988. "Measuring the Effect of Subsidized Training Programs on Movements in and out of Employment," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(3), pages 497-530, May.
  12. L. J. �lvarez & E. Dhyne & M. Hoeberichts & C. Kwapil & H. Le Bihan & P. L�nnemann & F. Martins & R. Sabbatini & H. Stahl & P. Vermeulen & J. Vilmunen, 2005. "Sticky Prices in the Euro Area: a Summary of New Micro Evidence," DNB Working Papers 062, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  13. Cecchetti, Stephen G., 1986. "The frequency of price adjustment : A study of the newsstand prices of magazines," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 255-274, April.
  14. Catherine Fuss & Ladislav Wintr, 2009. "Rigid labour compensation and flexible employment ? Firm-level evidence with regard to productivity for Belgium," Working Paper Research 159, National Bank of Belgium.
  15. Fabiani, S. & Druant, M. & Hernando, I. & Kwapil, C. & Landau, B. & Loupias, C. & Martins, F. & Mathä, T. & Sabbatini, R. & Stahl, H. & Stockman, A., 2005. "The Pricing Behaviour of Firms in the Euro Area: New Survey Evidence," Working papers 135, Banque de France.
  16. J. Konieczny, F. Rumler, 2006. "Regular Adjustment - Theory and Evidenc," Working Papers eg0055, Wilfrid Laurier University, Department of Economics, revised 2006.
  17. Sheshinski, Eytan & Weiss, Yoram, 1977. "Inflation and Costs of Price Adjustment," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(2), pages 287-303, June.
  18. Vermeulen, Philip & Dias, Daniel & Dossche, Maarten & Gautier, Erwan & Hernando, Ignacio & Sabbatini, Roberto & Stahl, Harald, 2007. "Price setting in the euro area: some stylised facts from individual producer price data," Working Paper Series 0727, European Central Bank.
  19. Georg Müller & Sourav Ray, 2007. "Asymmetric price adjustment: evidence from weekly product-level scanner price data," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(7), pages 723-736.
  20. Fougere, Denis & Le Bihan, Herve & Sevestre, Patrick, 2007. "Heterogeneity in Consumer Price Stickiness: A Microeconometric Investigation," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 25, pages 247-264, July.
  21. Gautier, E. & Sevestre, P., 2006. "Les ajustements des prix de production en France et dans la zone euro. Une synthèse à partir de données quantitatives et qualitatives," Bulletin de la Banque de France, Banque de France, issue 153, pages 73-82.
  22. Daniel Levy & Shantanu Dutta & Mark Bergen, 2002. "Heterogeneity in Price Rigidity: Evidence from a Case Study Using Micro-Level Data," Working Papers 2002-09, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
  23. Fabiani, Silvia & Loupias, Claire & Martins, Fernando & Sabbatini, Roberto (ed.), 2007. "Pricing Decisions in the Euro Area: How Firms Set Prices and Why," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195309287.
  24. Guiso, Luigi & Pistaferri, Luigi & Schivardi, Fabiano, 2001. "Insurance Within the Firm," CEPR Discussion Papers 2793, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  25. Daniel Dias & Carlos Robalo Marques & Pedro Duarte Neves & J.M.C.Santos Silva, 2004. "On the Fisher-Konieczny Index of Price Changes Synchronization," Working Papers w200407, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
  26. Sam Peltzman, 2000. "Prices Rise Faster than They Fall," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 466-502, June.
  27. Campbell Leith & Jim Malley, 2003. "A Sectoral Analysis of Price-Setting Behavior in US Manufacturing Industries," CESifo Working Paper Series 984, CESifo Group Munich.
  28. Buckle, R-A & Carlson, J-A, 1996. "Inflation an Asymmetric Price Adjustment," Papers 96-013, Purdue University, Krannert School of Management - Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER).
  29. Bartosz Mackowiak & Mirko Wiederholt, 2009. "Optimal Sticky Prices under Rational Inattention," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(3), pages 769-803, June.
  30. Dhyne, E. & Fuss, C. & Pesaran, H. & Sevestre, P., 2007. "Lumpy Price Adjustments: A Microeconometric Analysis," Working papers 185, Banque de France.
  31. Stahl, Harald, 2005. "Time-dependent or state-dependent price setting? Micro-evidence from German metal-working industries," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2005,25, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  32. Davis, Michael C & Hamilton, James D, 2004. "Why Are Prices Sticky? The Dynamics of Wholesale Gasoline Prices," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(1), pages 17-37, February.
  33. Heckel, T. & Le Bihan, H. & Montornès, J., 2008. "Sticky Wages. Evidence from Quarterly Microeconomic Data," Working papers 208, Banque de France.
  34. Luc Aucremanne & Emmanuel Dhyne, 2005. "Time-dependent versus State-dependent Pricing: A Panel Data Approach to the Determinants of Belgian Consumer Price Changes," Working Paper Research 66, National Bank of Belgium.
  35. Mark Bils & Peter J. Klenow, 2002. "Some Evidence on the Importance of Sticky Prices," NBER Working Papers 9069, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  36. Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 2005. "Simple solutions to the initial conditions problem in dynamic, nonlinear panel data models with unobserved heterogeneity," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(1), pages 39-54.
  37. Horny, G. & Sevestre, P., 2010. "Wage and price joint dynamics at the firm level: an empirical analysis," Working papers 305, Banque de France.
  38. Ana Rute Cardoso & Miguel Portela, 2009. "Micro Foundations for Wage Flexibility: Wage Insurance at the Firm Level," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 111(1), pages 29-50, 03.
  39. Sheshinski, Eytan & Weiss, Yoram, 1983. "Optimum Pricing Policy under Stochastic Inflation," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(3), pages 513-29, July.
  40. Fuss, Catherine, 2008. "How do firms adjust their wage bill in Belgium? A decomposition along the intensive and extensive margins," Working Paper Series 0854, European Central Bank.
  41. Emi Nakamura & Jón Steinsson, 2008. "Five Facts about Prices: A Reevaluation of Menu Cost Models," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 123(4), pages 1415-1464, November.
  42. M Arellano & O Bover, 1990. "Another Look at the Instrumental Variable Estimation of Error-Components Models," CEP Discussion Papers dp0007, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  43. Dias, D. & Dossche, M. & Gautier, E. & Hernando, I. & Sabbatini , R. & Stahl , H. & Vermeulen, P., 2007. "Macro Price setting in the euro area: Some stylised facts from Individual Producer Price," Working papers 164, Banque de France.
  44. Martin Eichenbaum & Nir Jaimovich & Sergio Rebelo, 2011. "Reference Prices, Costs, and Nominal Rigidities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(1), pages 234-62, February.
  45. Erwan Gautier & Denis Fougère & Sanvi Avouyi-Dovi, 2009. "Les négociations salariales en France : une analyse à partir de données d’entreprises (1994 ‑ 2005)," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 426(1), pages 29-65.
  46. Fisher, Timothy C. G. & Konieczny, Jerzy D., 2000. "Synchronization of price changes by multiproduct firms: evidence from Canadian newspaper prices," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 271-277, September.
  47. Rivers, Douglas & Vuong, Quang H., 1988. "Limited information estimators and exogeneity tests for simultaneous probit models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 347-366, November.
  48. Erwan Gautier, 2008. "The behaviour of producer prices: evidence from French PPI micro data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 301-332, September.
  49. Hall, Simon & Walsh, Mark & Yates, Anthony, 2000. "Are UK Companies' Prices Sticky?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 52(3), pages 425-46, July.
  50. Claire Loupias & Roland Ricart, 2006. "Price-setting in the French manufacturing sector : New evidence from survey data," Revue d'économie politique, Dalloz, vol. 116(4), pages 541-554.
  51. Lach, Saul & Tsiddon, Daniel, 1992. "The Behavior of Prices and Inflation: An Empirical Analysis of Disaggregated Price Data," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(2), pages 349-89, April.
  52. Andrew C. Caplin & Daniel F. Spulber, 1987. "Menu Costs and the Neutrality of Money," NBER Working Papers 2311, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  53. Laurent Baudry & Hervé Le Bihan & Patrick Sevestre & Sylvie Tarrieu, 2007. "What do Thirteen Million Price Records have to Say about Consumer Price Rigidity?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(2), pages 139-183, 04.
  54. Aguirregabiria, Victor, 1999. "The Dynamics of Markups and Inventories in Retailing Firms," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 66(2), pages 275-308, April.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eve:wpaper:10-06. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Samuel Nosel)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.