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Analyse économique des causes des guerres civiles : un état des lieux

Author

Listed:
  • Thomas Calvo

    () (Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL University, CNRS UMR8007, IRD UMR260, LEDa, DIAL)

  • Marion Mercier

    () (Universite Paris-Dauphine PSL Research University, LEDa, DIAL, Paris; and IZA, Bonn)

Abstract

Entre 1945 et 2007, 40% des pays du monde ont connu une guerre civile. De nombreux travaux quantitatifs et qualitatifs soulignent les conséquences dramatiques que ces violences génèrent sur les économies et individus concernés. Prenant acte de ces résultats, la recherche en économie s’est attelée à comprendre les déterminants des guerres civiles, dans le but d’éclairer les politiques publiques nationales et internationales susceptibles de juguler l’obstacle majeur au développement socio-économique qu’elles représentent. Cet article propose un état des lieux, non-exhaustif mais illustratif, de la littérature consacrée aux causes économiques des guerres civiles qui, quoique relativement récente, est très riche. En mobilisant des travaux à la fois théoriques et empiriques, nous discutons en particulier de l’impact du revenu individuel et de la pauvreté, du rôle du caractère appropriable des ressources nationales, et de celui de l’accès à ces ressources, déterminé entre autres par les institutions et systèmes de redistribution. Nous concluons en évoquant quelques-unes des pistes de recherche ouvertes et en rappelant l’importance des défis méthodologiques qu’elles appellent à relever._____________________________________________________Around 40% of the world’s countries have been plagued by a civil war between 1945 and 2007. A large amount of quantitative and qualitative research emphasizes the tragic consequences of such violence for the concerned economies and individuals. As civil conflicts represent a major threat to socio-economic development, the economic literature has worked on uncovering their determinants, in order to enlighten which national and international public policies are likely to be risk-mitigating. This article draws an illustrative overview of the relatively recent, but very rich, literature dedicated to the economic causes of civil wars. Relying on both theoretical and empirical works, we notably discuss the roles of individual income and poverty, resources appropriability, access to resources and institutions and redistribution systems. Finally, we underline some of the currently open research routes, and discuss the methodological challenges they raise.

Suggested Citation

  • Thomas Calvo & Marion Mercier, 2019. "Analyse économique des causes des guerres civiles : un état des lieux," Working Papers DT/2019/11, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  • Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt201911
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    File URL: http://www.dial.ird.fr/media/ird-sites-d-unites-de-recherche/dial/documents/publications/doc_travail/2019/2019-11
    File Function: First version, 2019
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Civil wars; Opportunity cost; Appropriation; Resources.;

    JEL classification:

    • D74 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances; Revolutions
    • I30 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General
    • Q34 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts
    • H20 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - General

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