IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Confiage et scolarisation des enfants en milieu rural à Madagascar


  • Nelly Rakoto-Tiana

    () (UMR DIAL Université Paris XIII)


(english) Much empirical research found that fostered children are less likely than others to attend school, which suggests that fostering may be disadvantaged human capital investment. This paper tries to analyze the impact of child fostering on school enrollment in rural Madagascar. We examine firstly if schooling is a principal reason of household’s decision to foster a child. Indeed, biological parents may decide to send their children to another household to be educated, but host household may have another motivation by accepting to receive them. Results suggest that schooling is not a determinant of fostering-in or fostering-out of households. Furthermore, household demographics are a strong determinant of receiving a child for host household. However, using a panel data and controlling the endogeneity problems, results suggest that fostering improves the enrollment of young children if they are blood-related to the head of the fostering-in household but has a negative impact if they are not blood-related to him. _________________________________ (français) Dans la plupart des travaux empiriques existants, les enfants confiés apparaissent moins éduqués en moyenne, suggérant par-là que le confiage est néfaste à l'investissement de l'éducation des enfants. Cet article s’inscrit dans cette voie de recherche et tente d’analyser l’effet du confiage sur le niveau d'éducation des enfants en milieu rural à Madagascar. Nous cherchons tout d’abord à identifier si la scolarisation est une des principales raisons du confiage auprès des ménages. En effet, les parents biologiques peuvent certes décider de confier leurs enfants à un autre ménage pour accroître leur chance d’intégrer ou de poursuivre l’école, mais les familles d’accueil peuvent avoir une autre logique. Les résultats économétriques montrent que la scolarisation n’est pas déterminante des décisions de confiage auprès des ménages. La composition démographique du ménage est le seul facteur déterminant des décisions de la famille d’accueil. En mobilisant des données longitudinales et en contrôlant les problèmes d’endogénéité, le confiage a cependant un impact positif et significatif sur la scolarisation des jeunes enfants apparentés au chef de ménage, et un impact négatif sur celle des enfants non apparentés.

Suggested Citation

  • Nelly Rakoto-Tiana, 2012. "Confiage et scolarisation des enfants en milieu rural à Madagascar," Working Papers DT/2012/01, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  • Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt201201

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: First version, 2012
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Maloney, William F., 2004. "Informality Revisited," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(7), pages 1159-1178, July.
    2. Gong, Xiaodong & Van Soest, Arthur & Villagomez, Elizabeth, 2004. "Mobility in the Urban Labor Market: A Panel Data Analysis for Mexico," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(1), pages 1-36, October.
    3. Bocquier, Philippe & Nordman, Christophe J. & Vescovo, Aude, 2010. "Employment Vulnerability and Earnings in Urban West Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 1297-1314, September.
    4. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4294 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10758 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Jean-Pierre Cling & Mireille Razafindrakoto & François Roubaud, 2012. "Explanatory factors behind formalizing non-farm household businesses in Vietnam," Working Papers DT/2012/20, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    7. Jean-Pierre Cling & Mireille Razafindrakoto & Francois Roubaud, 2010. "Assessing the Potential Impact of the Global Crisis on the Labour Market and the Informal Sector in Vietnam," Working Papers 05, Development and Policies Research Center (DEPOCEN), Vietnam.
    8. Falco, Paolo & Kerr, Andrew & Rankin, Neil & Sandefur, Justin & Teal, Francis, 2011. "The returns to formality and informality in urban Africa," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(S1), pages 23-31.
    9. Jean-Pierre Cling & Mohamed Ali Marouani & Mireille Razafindrakoto & Anne-Sophie Robilliard & Francois Roubaud, 2009. "The Distributive Impact of Vietnam's Accession to the WTO," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 118, pages 43-71.
    10. McKenzie, David & Seynabou Sakho, Yaye, 2010. "Does it pay firms to register for taxes? The impact of formality on firm profitability," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 15-24, January.
    11. Christophe J. Nordman & François-Charles Wolff, 2009. "Gender differences in pay in African manufacturing firms," Working Papers hal-00421227, HAL.
    12. Ivan A. Canay, 2011. "A simple approach to quantile regression for panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 14(3), pages 368-386, October.
    13. Koenker, Roger, 2004. "Quantile regression for longitudinal data," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 74-89, October.
    14. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10658 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Bargain, Olivier & Kwenda, Prudence, 2010. "Is Informality Bad? Evidence from Brazil, Mexico and South Africa," IZA Discussion Papers 4711, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    16. Rand, John & Torm, Nina, 2012. "The Benefits of Formalization: Evidence from Vietnamese Manufacturing SMEs," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 983-998.
    17. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4321 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Soderbom, Mans & Teal, Francis & Wambugu, Anthony, 2005. "Unobserved heterogeneity and the relation between earnings and firm size: evidence from two developing countries," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 153-159, May.
    19. Strobl, Eric & Thornton, Robert, 2002. "Do Large Employers Pay More in Developing Countries? The Case of Five African Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 660, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    20. Fernández, Rosa M. & Nordman, Christophe J., 2009. "Are there pecuniary compensations for working conditions?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 194-207, April.
    21. Clément Imbert, 2011. "Decomposing wage inequality: Public and private sectors in Vietnam 1993-2006," PSE Working Papers halshs-00564653, HAL.
    22. Harris, John R & Todaro, Michael P, 1970. "Migration, Unemployment & Development: A Two-Sector Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 126-142, March.
    23. Nordman, Christophe J. & Robilliard, Anne-Sophie & Roubaud, François, 2011. "Gender and ethnic earnings gaps in seven West African cities," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(S1), pages 132-145.
    24. Maloney, William F, 1999. "Does Informality Imply Segmentation in Urban Labor Markets? Evidence from Sectoral Transitions in Mexico," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 275-302, May.
    25. Matteo Migheli, 2011. "Do the Vietnamese Support the Economic Doi Moi ?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(7), pages 939-968, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Samia Badji, 2016. "Mother's Education and Increased Child Survival in Madagascar: What Can We Say?," Working Papers halshs-01407812, HAL.

    More about this item


    Child fostering; schooling; confiage des enfants; scolarisation;

    JEL classification:

    • J12 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • D10 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt201201. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Loic Le Pezennec). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.