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Libéralisation commerciale et emploi en Tunisie : un modèle d'équilibre général calculable avec salaires d'efficience

  • Mohamed Ali Marouani

    ()

    (DIAL, Université Paris1-Panthéon-Sorbonne/IEDES.)

(english) Within a multisectoral general equilibrium framework, we explicitly model endogenous wage differentials between sectors. The model, based on efficiency wage theory (the Shirking Model) is used to assess the impact of trade liberalization on employment and wages in Tunisia. Highly skilled workers are the main losers because their specialization reduces their mobility in the short run. We show that the results are different from those obtained with an exogenous wage differentials CGE model in terms of employment, but also mainly in terms of income distribution among the different categories of workers. These findings are explained by the different labour market closures in the two models: Unemployment is the equilibrating variable in the efficiency wage model, while it is the average wage in the exogenous wage differentials model. _________________________________ (français) Dans le cadre d’un modèle d’équilibre général, nous modélisons les écarts de salaires intersectoriels en recourant à la théorie du contrôle imparfait des travailleurs. Le modèle est utilisé pour évaluer l’impact de l’ouverture de l’économie tunisienne sur l’emploi et les salaires. Les principaux perdants sont les travailleurs très qualifiés en raison de leur spécialisation qui réduit leur mobilité à court terme. Nous montrons par ailleurs que les résultats diffèrent de ceux obtenus avec un modèle à différentiels de salaires exogènes, en terme d’emplois, mais surtout en terme de distribution des revenus entre les différentes catégories de travailleurs. Ceci est dû principalement à l’arbitrage salaires / emplois différent dans les deux modèles. La variable d’équilibre du marché du travail est le chômage dans le modèle à salaires d’efficience, alors que le salaire moyen constitue la variable d’ajustement dans le modèle à différentiels de salaires exogènes.

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File URL: http://www.dial.ird.fr/media/ird-sites-d-unites-de-recherche/dial/documents/publications/doc_travail/1999/1999-09
File Function: First version, 1999
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Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/1999/09.

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Length: 29 pages
Date of creation: Dec 1999
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt199909
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