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Computing Effective Tax Rates on Factor Incomes and Consumption: An International Macroeconomic Perspective


  • Mendoza, Enrique G
  • Razin, Assaf
  • Tesar, Linda


This paper proposes a methodology for computing effective average tax rates using national accounts and revenue statistics, and applies it to construct time-series of tax rates for the seven largest industrialized countries. The resulting tax rates are consistent with available estimates of marginal tax rates, and with basic principles linking tax rates to savings, investment, and labour supply in neoclassical models, and to the rate of unemployment in job search models. These results suggest that the proposed tax rates are useful approximations to those faced by economic agents in models based on optimizing behaviour.

Suggested Citation

  • Mendoza, Enrique G & Razin, Assaf & Tesar, Linda, 1994. "Computing Effective Tax Rates on Factor Incomes and Consumption: An International Macroeconomic Perspective," CEPR Discussion Papers 866, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:866

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ciccone, Antonio & Matsuyama, Kiminori, 1996. "Start-up costs and pecuniary externalities as barriers to economic development," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 33-59, April.
    2. Paul Krugman, 1991. "History versus Expectations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 651-667.
    3. Kiminori Matsuyama, 1991. "Increasing Returns, Industrialization, and Indeterminacy of Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 617-650.
    4. Markusen, James R, 1989. "Trade in Producer Services and in Other Specialized Intermediate Inputs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 85-95, March.
    5. Murphy, Kevin M & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1989. "Industrialization and the Big Push," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(5), pages 1003-1026, October.
    6. Ethier, Wilfred J, 1982. "National and International Returns to Scale in the Modern Theory of International Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 389-405, June.
    7. Hamilton, C.B. & Winters, L.A., 1992. "Opening Up International Trade in Eastern Europe," Papers 511, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
    8. Faini, Riccardo, 1984. "Increasing Returns, Non-Traded Inputs and Regional Development," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 94(374), pages 308-323, June.
    9. Costas Azariadis & Allan Drazen, 1990. "Threshold Externalities in Economic Development," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(2), pages 501-526.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gaëtan Nicodème, 2002. "Sector and size effects on effective corporate taxation," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 175, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.

    More about this item


    Capital Income Tax; Consumption Tax; International Tax Policy; Investment; Labour Income Tax; Labour Supply; Savings;

    JEL classification:

    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
    • H2 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
    • H3 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents
    • H87 - Public Economics - - Miscellaneous Issues - - - International Fiscal Issues; International Public Goods


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