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Factor Based Index Tracking


  • Corielli, Francesco
  • Marcellino, Massimiliano


Index tracking requires building a portfolio of stocks (a replica) whose behaviour is as close as possible to that of a given stock index. Typically, much fewer stocks should appear in the replica than in the index, and there should be no low frequency (persistent) components in the tracking error. Unfortunately, the latter property is not satisfied by many commonly used methods for index tracking. These are based on the in-sample minimization of a loss function, but do not take into account the dynamic properties of the index components. Instead, we represent the index components with a dynamic factor model, and develop a procedure that, in a first step, builds a replica that is driven by the same persistent factors as the index. In a second step, it is also possible to refine the replica so that it minimizes a loss function, as in the traditional approach. Both Monte Carlo simulations and an application to the EuroStoxx50 index provide substantial support for our approach.

Suggested Citation

  • Corielli, Francesco & Marcellino, Massimiliano, 2002. "Factor Based Index Tracking," CEPR Discussion Papers 3265, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:3265

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    8. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2004. "A PANIC Attack on Unit Roots and Cointegration," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(4), pages 1127-1177, July.
    9. Chamberlain, Gary & Rothschild, Michael, 1983. "Arbitrage, Factor Structure, and Mean-Variance Analysis on Large Asset Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(5), pages 1281-1304, September.
    10. Rudolf, Markus & Wolter, Hans-Jurgen & Zimmermann, Heinz, 1999. "A linear model for tracking error minimization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 85-103, January.
    11. Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 2002. "Macroeconomic Forecasting Using Diffusion Indexes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(2), pages 147-162, April.
    12. Jushan Bai, 2003. "Inferential Theory for Factor Models of Large Dimensions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(1), pages 135-171, January.
    13. Michael P. Clements & David F. Hendry, 2001. "Forecasting Non-Stationary Economic Time Series," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262531895, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Forni, Mario & Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco & Zaffaroni, Paolo, 2015. "Dynamic factor models with infinite-dimensional factor spaces: One-sided representations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 185(2), pages 359-371.
    2. Liang-chuan Wu & I-chan Tsai, 2014. "Three fuzzy goal programming models for index portfolios," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 65(8), pages 1155-1169, August.
    3. Daniel Giamouridis & Sandra Paterlini, 2010. "Regular(Ized) Hedge Fund Clones," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 33(3), pages 223-247.
    4. Blitz, David & Huij, Joop, 2012. "Evaluating the performance of global emerging markets equity exchange-traded funds," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 149-158.
    5. Cavicchioli, Maddalena & Forni, Mario & Lippi, Marco & Zaffaroni, Paolo, 2016. "Eigenvalue Ratio Estimators for the Number of Common Factors," CEPR Discussion Papers 11440, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Mario Forni & Marc Hallin & Marco Lippi & Paolo Zaffaroni, 2011. "One-Sided Representations of Generalized Dynamic Factor Models," DSS Empirical Economics and Econometrics Working Papers Series 2011/5, Centre for Empirical Economics and Econometrics, Department of Statistics, "Sapienza" University of Rome.
    7. Derigs, Ulrich & Marzban, Shehab, 2009. "New strategies and a new paradigm for Shariah-compliant portfolio optimization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 1166-1176, June.
    8. repec:eee:ecofin:v:42:y:2017:i:c:p:172-192 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Boldin, Michael & Cici, Gjergji, 2010. "The index fund rationality paradox," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 33-43, January.
    10. repec:eee:finana:v:54:y:2017:i:c:p:159-175 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Canakgoz, N.A. & Beasley, J.E., 2009. "Mixed-integer programming approaches for index tracking and enhanced indexation," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 196(1), pages 384-399, July.

    More about this item


    factor models; index tracing; replica; stock index;

    JEL classification:

    • C43 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Index Numbers and Aggregation
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods
    • G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)

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