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Duration of Marriage, Fertility and Female Employment Opportunities in England and Wales in 1911

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  • Crafts, Nicholas

Abstract

Data from the 1911 Census of England and Wales are examined for evidence of family limitation early in marriage. It is shown that a substantial number of couples used birth control for 'spacing' as well as 'stopping' fertility. Moreover 'spacing' of births appears to have been more widespread in districts in which female employment opportunities were relatively good. In general the results obtained do not fit with the 'Princeton' view of the European fertility transition, with its stress on parity-specific family limitation spreading in response to improvements in contraceptive information and technology.

Suggested Citation

  • Crafts, Nicholas, 1988. "Duration of Marriage, Fertility and Female Employment Opportunities in England and Wales in 1911," CEPR Discussion Papers 252, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:252
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    Cited by:

    1. Sascha O. Becker & Francesco Cinnirella & Ludger Woessmann, 2012. "The effect of investment in children’s education on fertility in 1816 Prussia," Cliometrica, Journal of Historical Economics and Econometric History, Association Française de Cliométrie (AFC), vol. 6(1), pages 29-44, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Birth Control; Family Planning; Fertility; Marriage;

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