Cycle commuting in Belgium: Spatial determinants and ‘re-cycling’ strategies
This paper attempts to explain the spatial variation of the use of a bicycle for commuting to work at the level of the 589 municipalities in Belgium. Regression techniques were used and special attention was paid to autocorrelation, heterogeneity and multicollinearity. Spatial lag models were used to correct for the presence of spatial dependence and a disaggregated modelling strategy was adopted for the northern and southern parts of the country. The results show that much of the inter-municipality variation in bicycle use is related to environmental aspects such as the relief, traffic volumes and cycling accidents. Town size, distance travelled and demographic aspects also have some effect. In addition, there are regional differences in the effects of the structural covariates on bicycle use: the impact of variables such as traffic volume and cycling accidents differs substantially between the north and the south of the country. This paper also suggests that high rates of bicycle use in one municipality stimulate cycling in neighbouring municipalities, and hence that a mass effect can be initiated, i.e. more cycle commuting encourages even more commuters in the area to cycle. These findings provide some recommendations for decision-makers wishing to promote a shift from car to bicycle use
|Date of creation:||01 Nov 2009|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Voie du Roman Pays 34, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)|
Fax: +32 10474304
Web page: http://www.uclouvain.be/core
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kingham, S. & Dickinson, J. & Copsey, S, 2001. "Travelling to work: will people move out of their cars," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 151-160, April.
- Gatersleben, Birgitta & Appleton, Katherine M., 2007. "Contemplating cycling to work: Attitudes and perceptions in different stages of change," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(4), pages 302-312, May.
- Bergström, A. & Magnusson, R., 2003. "Potential of transferring car trips to bicycle during winter," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 649-666, October.
- John Parkin & Mark Wardman & Matthew Page, 2008. "Estimation of the determinants of bicycle mode share for the journey to work using census data," Transportation, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 93-109, January.
- Tilahun, Nebiyou Y. & Levinson, David M. & Krizek, Kevin J., 2007. "Trails, lanes, or traffic: Valuing bicycle facilities with an adaptive stated preference survey," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(4), pages 287-301, May.
- Pikora, Terri & Giles-Corti, Billie & Bull, Fiona & Jamrozik, Konrad & Donovan, Rob, 2003. "Developing a framework for assessment of the environmental determinants of walking and cycling," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 56(8), pages 1693-1703, April.
- Pucher, John & Buehler, Ralph, 2006. "Why Canadians cycle more than Americans: A comparative analysis of bicycling trends and policies," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 265-279, May.
- McClintock, Hugh & Cleary, Johanna, 1996. "Cycle facilities and cyclists' safety : Experience from Greater Nottingham and lessons for future cycling provision," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 67-77.
- Claire Dujardin & Isabelle Thomas & Henry Tulkens, 2007.
"Quelles frontières pour Bruxelles ? Une mise à jour,"
Reflets et perspectives de la vie économique,
De Boeck Université, vol. 0(2), pages 155-176.
- DUJARDIN, Claire & THOMAS, Isabelle & TULKENS, Henry, . "Quelles frontières pour Bruxelles? Une mise à jour," CORE Discussion Papers RP 1972, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Martens, Karel, 2007. "Promoting bike-and-ride: The Dutch experience," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(4), pages 326-338, May.
- Pucher, John & Komanoff, Charles & Schimek, Paul, 1999. "Bicycling renaissance in North America?: Recent trends and alternative policies to promote bicycling," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 33(7-8), pages 625-654.
- Nankervis, Max, 1999. "The effect of weather and climate on bicycle commuting," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 417-431, August.
- Ramajo, Julián & Márquez, Miguel A. & Hewings, Geoffrey J.D. & Salinas, María M., 2008. "Spatial heterogeneity and interregional spillovers in the European Union: Do cohesion policies encourage convergence across regions?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 551-567, April.
- Jensen, Mette, 1999. "Passion and heart in transport -- a sociological analysis on transport behaviour," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 19-33, January.
- Ortúzar, Juan de Dios & Iacobelli, Andrés & Valeze, Claudio, 2000. "Estimating demand for a cycle-way network," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 353-373, June.
- Vandenbulcke, Grégory & Thomas, Isabelle & de Geus, Bas & Degraeuwe, Bart & Torfs, Rudi & Meeusen, Romain & Int Panis, Luc, 2009.
"Mapping bicycle use and the risk of accidents for commuters who cycle to work in Belgium,"
Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 77-87, March.
- VANDENBULCKE, Grégory & THOMAS, Isabelle & de GEUS, Bas & DEGRAEUWE, Bart, . "Mapping bicycle use and the risk of accidents for commuters who cycle to work in Belgium," CORE Discussion Papers RP 2097, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Rietveld, Piet & Daniel, Vanessa, 2004. "Determinants of bicycle use: do municipal policies matter?," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 531-550, August.
- Hopkinson, P & Wardman, M, 1996. "Evaluating the demand for new cycle facilities," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 241-249, October.
- Curtis, Carey & Headicar, Peter, 1997. "Targeting travel awareness campaigns : Which individuals are more likely to switch from car to other transport for the journey to work?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 57-65, January.
- Wardman, Mark & Tight, Miles & Page, Matthew, 2007. "Factors influencing the propensity to cycle to work," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(4), pages 339-350, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cor:louvco:2009073. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Alain GILLIS)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.