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Combatiendo la mortalidad en la niñez: ¿son las reformas a los servicios básicos una buena estrategia?

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  • Andrea Otero Cortés

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Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the impact that the reforms introduced by the Law 142 of 1994, for the modification of the potable water and sewerage systems, had on the child mortality rate. These reforms, for one side, allowed the entrance of private companies into the public services provision market and, for the other side, they let public companies change their legal person status and operate under the private commercial law under certain conditions. We estimated the impact of the Law 142 using a quantile regression with treatment variable model called Quantile Treatment Effects. We estimated a parametric and a non-parametric version of the model for a sample of 492 municipalities. According to the results, in general, the reforms did not have any positive impact on the child mortality rate. In fact, for the higher quantiles of the distribution of mortality, we found that the municipalities which did not reform their provision of potable water and sewerage services experienced a bigger decrease in their child mortality rate than in the municipalities that reformed their services. RESUMEN: En el presente documento se analiza el impacto que las reformas introducidas por la Ley 142 de 1994 para modificar el sistema de provisión de acueducto y alcantarillado tuvieron sobre la mortalidad de menores de 5 años. Dichas reformas permitieron, por un lado, la entrada de firmas privadas al mercado de provisión de servicios públicos y, por otra parte, cambiar la persona jurídica de las empresas públicas ya establecidas para poder regirse bajo el derecho comercial privado. La estimación del impacto de la Ley 142 se realizó mediante un modelo de regresión por cuantiles con variables de tratamiento llamado Quantile Treatment Effects. El modelo se estimó en versión paramétrica y también en versión no paramétrica para una muestra de 492 municipios. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos en las dos versiones estimadas, en términos generales, las reformas no tuvieron impacto positivo sobre la mortalidad de menores de 5 años. En efecto, para los cuantiles más altos de la distribución de mortalidad, se observa que los municipios que no reformaron la provisión de los servicios de acueducto y alcantarillado, experimentaron un mayor descenso en la tasa de mortalidad que aquellos que sí reformaron.

Suggested Citation

  • Andrea Otero Cortés, 2011. "Combatiendo la mortalidad en la niñez: ¿son las reformas a los servicios básicos una buena estrategia?," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO SOBRE ECONOMÍA REGIONAL Y URBANA 008153, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ECONOMÍA REGIONAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000102:008153
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    Keywords

    Mortalidad menores de 5 años; Provisión de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado; Regulación.;

    JEL classification:

    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • H41 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Public Goods
    • I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Behavior
    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health

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