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El salario mínimo y el régimen de ahorro individual en pensiones: diagnóstico, evidencia y problemática

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  • Erika Schutt Pardo

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Abstract

Uno de los objetivos principales de la Ley 100 de 1993 era propender por la ampliación progresiva de cobertura a los segmentos de población no cubiertos con un sistema de pensiones obligatorio. Sin embargo, esa misma reforma estableció que (i) en ningún caso se podrá cotizar con ingresos inferiores a un Salario Mínimo Legal Mensual Vigente (SMLV); y (ii) debería adoptarse una Garantía de Pensión Mínima (GPM), mediante la cual se le garantiza a todos los afiliados al Sistema General de Pensiones (SGP) una pensión mínima que no puede ser inferior al SMLV. Así, este documento demuestra empíricamente que la existencia conjunta de un salario mínimo elevado, respecto a la productividad media de la economía colombiana, y una GPM indexadaal salario mínimo, están generando exclusión e inequidad en el Régimen de Ahorro Individual (RAIS) y así, en el SGP. En la práctica, el hecho de que la cotización y la pensión mínima estén atadas al SMLV constituye un gran impedimento a la ampliación de la cobertura y equidad del sistema pues las características del mercado laboral (alto desempleo e informalidad) se ven reflejadas directamente en el sistema pensional y se hace muy difícil (i) afiliarse al sistema (las personas excluidas del mercado laboral formal por definición quedan excluidas del sistema pensional); y (ii) acumular el capital necesario que permita obtener una pensión mínima igual a un SMLV por el resto de la vida (requisito del RAIS para poderse pensionar). De esta manera, se impone una barrera a las personas para pensionarse, en especial a las de menor educación que corresponden a las más pobres. Adicionalmente, este hecho genera unas transferencias bastante inequitativas de pobres a ricos dentro del sistema y hace que las mesadas sean inferiores a lo que podrían ser si no existieran esas restricciones. Es decir, se desvirtúan los propósitos que inicialmente dan origen a la GPM.

Suggested Citation

  • Erika Schutt Pardo, 2011. "El salario mínimo y el régimen de ahorro individual en pensiones: diagnóstico, evidencia y problemática," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 008745, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000089:008745
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    File URL: http://economia.uniandes.edu.co/publicaciones/dcede2011-16.pdf
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    Keywords

    sistema pensional; régimen de ahorro individual; salario mínimo; garantía de pensión mínima; informalidad.;

    JEL classification:

    • J32 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits; Retirement Plans; Private Pensions
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
    • H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions
    • J38 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Public Policy
    • J39 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Other

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