IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The role of participation and empowerment in income and poverty dynamics in Indonesia 1993-2000

  • Espen Villanger
  • Anette Walstad Enes

The objective of this study is to assess whether living in a community that has a more democratic decision making system or in a society with a higher degree of participation and cooperation has any effect on household income changes and poverty reduction in Indonesia. Constructing an empowerment index and a participation index, we find that a household would have had a two percentage point higher income growth from 1993 to 2000 if it had been in a society with a high degree of cooperation compared to a society with the lowest degree of cooperation, if our results imply causality. This is substantial, since the average household per capita real income growth between 1993 and 2000 was 11 %. The participation index was found to be insignificant.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by CMI (Chr. Michelsen Institute), Bergen, Norway in its series CMI Working Papers with number WP 2004: 13.

in new window

Length: 30 pages
Date of creation: 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:chm:wpaper:wp2004-13
Contact details of provider: Postal: P.O. Box 6033, N-5020 Bergen
Phone: +47 55 57 40 00
Fax: +47 55 57 41 66
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Jalan, Jyotsna & Ravallion, Martin, 2001. "Behavioral responses to risk in rural China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 23-49, October.
  2. Arsenio Balisacan & Ernesto Pernia & Abuzar Asra, 2003. "Revisiting growth and poverty reduction in Indonesia: what do subnational data show?," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(3), pages 329-351.
  3. Stefan Dercon, 2001. "Economic Reform, Growth and the Poor: Evidence from Rural Ethiopia," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2001-08, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  4. Gary Fields & Paul Cichello & Samuel Freije & Marta Menendez & David Newhouse, 2003. "Household income dynamics: a four-country story," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(2), pages 30-54.
  5. Narayan, Deepa & Pritchett, Lant, 1997. "Cents and sociability : household income and social capital in rural Tanzania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1796, The World Bank.
  6. Emmanuel Skoufias & Asep Suryahadi, 2000. "Changes in Household Welfare, Poverty and Inequality During the Crisis," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(2), pages 97-114.
  7. Bob Baulch & John Hoddinott, 2000. "Economic mobility and poverty dynamics in developing countries," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(6), pages 1-24.
  8. Sen, Binayak, 2003. "Drivers of Escape and Descent: Changing Household Fortunes in Rural Bangladesh," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 513-534, March.
  9. Barbara Piazza-Georgi, 2002. "The role of human and social capital in growth: extending our understanding," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 26(4), pages 461-479, July.
  10. Christiaan Grootaert & Gi-Taik Oh & Anand Swamy, 2002. "Social Capital, Household Welfare and Poverty in Burkina Faso," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 11(1), pages 4-38, March.
  11. Adelman, Irma & Morley, Samuel & Schenzler, Christoph & Warning, Matthew, 1994. "Estimating income mobility from census data," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 187-213, April.
  12. Orr, Alastair & Mwale, Blessings, 2001. "Adapting to Adjustment: Smallholder Livelihood Strategies in Southern Malawi," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(8), pages 1325-1343, August.
  13. Birchenall, Javier A., 2001. "Income distribution, human capital and economic growth in Colombia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 271-287, October.
  14. McCulloch, Neil & Calandrino, Michele, 2003. "Vulnerability and Chronic Poverty in Rural Sichuan," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 611-628, March.
  15. Jyotsna Jalan & Martin Ravallion, 2000. "Is transient poverty different? Evidence for rural China," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(6), pages 82-99.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:chm:wpaper:wp2004-13. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Robert Sjursen)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.