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La Agricultura en Colombia entre 1950 y 2000

  • Salomón Kalmanovitz

    ()

  • Enrique López

    ()

La segunda República conservadora, que se inicia con el gobierno de Ospina Pérez en 1946 y culmina con el derrocamiento de Rojas Pinilla en 1957, tomó los elementos del control de cambios legados por la crisis de los años treinta y consolidó las bases de un modelo de desarrollo económico que se tornó en una política de Estado durante la mayor parte del siglo XX. La administración Ospina (1946-1950) aumentó los aranceles sobre las importaciones tanto de bienes industriales como agrícolas, erigiendo uno de los pilares del modelo económico de la administración de Laureano Gómez, ya bajo una orientación corporativa inspirada por la España franquista. El control de cambios fue otra herramienta fundamental que sirvió para imponerle a todas las empresas, ellas mismas protegidas, que hicieran sus compras de materias primas a proveedores nacionales3. Los beneficiados por la protección eran escogidos por el gobierno de turno, adjudicándoles un subsidio contenido en el exceso del precio interno sobre el precio internacional del bien que permitía un arancel promedio del 40%, pagado inconscientemente por sus consumidores. La protección se convertía en un impuesto invisible que aumentaba la rentabilidad de las actividades que florecían bajo su manto, al tiempo que aumentaban los ingresos del gobierno sin tener que recurrir a la tributación transparente de sus ciudadanos.

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Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 255.

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  1. R. K. Pachauri & Sujata Gupta, 2002. "Editorial," Climate Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(2-3), pages 127-128, September.
  2. R. Purdy, 2002. "Editorial," Climate Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(1), pages 1-2, March.
  3. Ragnar L�fstedt, 2002. "Editorial," Journal of Risk Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 1-2, January.
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