IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Wheat Diversity and Productivity in Indian Punjab After the Green Revolution


  • Smale, Melinda
  • Singh, Joginder
  • Di Falco, Salvatore
  • Zambrano, Patricia


The Punjab of India is an historical source of key wheat genetic resources in national and global plant breeding, and a focus of concerns about the abandonment of local varieties during the Green Revolution. Much of the wheat area in Punjab was already planted with earlier products of modern plant breeding programs when the Green Revolution began. These cultivars were more genetically similar and less productive than the semi-dwarf wheat varieties that succeeded them. We define, summarize and test indices of variety change and genetic diversity for the modern wheat varieties released and grown in Indian Punjab during the post-Green Revolution period. The first is the area-weighted average of varieties grown, which measures the rate of variety change, important means of counteracting the uniformity that can lead to pathogen mutation and plant diseases. Variety change is determined in large part by variety release and seed industry po licies. The second is the average coefficient of diversity, which measures the extent of dissimilarity among wheat varieties conferred through plant breeding. A generalized Cobb-Douglas production function is estimated with these indices specified as technical efficiency parameters, after testing for the exogeneity of each index. Findings support the hypothesis that slow variety age has counteracted the positive productivity effects brought about through diversifying the genetic base in wheat breeding in the post-Green Revolution period. Policies that speed the rate of variety change and make more equitable the spatial distribution of modern varieties could support, rather than detract from wheat productivity, reinforcing breeding successes.

Suggested Citation

  • Smale, Melinda & Singh, Joginder & Di Falco, Salvatore & Zambrano, Patricia, 2006. "Wheat Diversity and Productivity in Indian Punjab After the Green Revolution," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25794, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:iaae06:25794

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Antle, John M., 1999. "Benefits and costs of food safety regulation," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 605-623, December.
    2. Romano, Donato & Cavicchi, Alessio & Rocchi, Benedetto & Stefani, Gianluca, 2004. "Costs and Benefits of Compliance for HACCP Regulation in the Italian Meat and Dairy Sector," 84th Seminar, February 8-11, 2004, Zeist, The Netherlands 24983, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Wheat; genetic diversity; Indian Punjab; productivity; Crop Production/Industries; Q12; Q57;

    JEL classification:

    • Q12 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
    • Q57 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Ecological Economics


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:iaae06:25794. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.