IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Farmers’ Willingness and Expected Economic Benefit to Adopt BMPs: an Application of Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equation Method


  • Zhong, Hua
  • Hu, Wuyang


Water Quality Trading (WQT) programs may offer farmers compensation to adopt Best Management Practices (BMPs). We conducted a survey of farmers in the Kentucky River watershed from 2011 to 2012. With respect to the five types of BMPs considered in the survey, about 20% of respondents did not indicate how much they will adopt. Missing responses are common for surveys on farming decisions. We compare three methods to handle the missing data: deleting the observations with missing value, mean imputation, and Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equation (MICE). Following these missing data treatments, we estimate the factors affecting how much farmers may engage in BMPs using Tobit or Poisson model. The results show that increasing the compensation for using BMPs is more likely to encourage farmers to adopt riparian buffers. In addition, land area, percentage of household income from farming, percentage of total household income reinvested back to farm, and current experience of BMPs will affect BMP adoption. The results obtained after using the MICE are more promising and reasonable than using the deletion or the mean imputation method. Implications are discussed for farmers’ BMP adoptions under WQT while missing observations are present.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhong, Hua & Hu, Wuyang, 2015. "Farmers’ Willingness and Expected Economic Benefit to Adopt BMPs: an Application of Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equation Method," 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco, California 205199, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:aaea15:205199

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    More about this item


    Environmental Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:aaea15:205199. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.