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Changements organisationnels, traçabilité, technologies de l'information et de la communication : le cas des caves coopératives viti-vinicoles du Languedoc-Roussillon

  • Salançon, A.
  • Baillette, P.
  • Fallery, B.
  • Rahali, N.
Registered author(s):

    In order to implement and comply with food safety and traceability regulations, companies may use a number of methods, including specialized information and communications technologies developed for this express purpose. As a result, compliance with regulatory obligations, and the use of techniques for collecting, processing and managing information, have triggered various changes both at the company and at the industry level. These changes highlight the question of how such factors affect the relationship between company actors -- in particular, how the growing importance of the challenge posed by information technology impacts the functioning and development of companies and their industry sectors. The current report is the result of research conducted in the wine industry in the region of Languedoc Roussillon in Southern France, focusing in particular on six wine cooperatives which both reflect the diversity of this type of commercial entity and constitute the dominant type of industry actor in the region's wine trade. This research, using case studies, centers on the hypothesis which states that he who possesses the means of capturing, managing and leveraging data used in the implementation of food safety regulations can shift the balance of power within an organization, as well as in its external relations with vendors and clients. This shifting power balance further incites organizational change. The results of the research contained in this report validate the hypothesis in two ways : The use of information and communications technology in the implementation of food safety and traceability regulations increases the power of the producer-distributor group within the wine co-op over the group that produces the grapes, represented by the winegrower-members. The winegrowers in fact tend to become subcontractors of the producer-distributor unit. At the same time, as regards customer relations, the use of information and communications technology in the implementation of food safety and traceability regulations by wine cooperatives was not found to give the cooperatives greater leverage or influence over their clientele. The power of the cooperatives is in fact subordinate to the needs of their clients who, in fact, often play in various ways with health and food safety regulations during commercial negotiations. ...French Abstract : Pour la mise en œuvre de la réglementation sur la sécurité/traçabilité alimentaire, nombre d'entreprises ont recours à différentes méthodes et utilisent divers moyens parmi lesquels les technologies d'information et de communication (TIC) dédiées à cette fonction. Dès lors, le respect des obligations réglementaires et l'usage de techniques de collecte, de traitement et de gestion d'information engendrent divers changements au sein des entreprises et des filières. Ils posent en particulier la question de savoir en quoi les rapports entre les acteurs des entreprises sont affectés par la combinaison de ces facteurs du fait, notamment, de l'importance croissante de l'enjeu informationnel dans le fonctionnement et le développement au sein des entreprises et des filières. Le présent rapport rend compte d'une recherche effectuée dans la filière vini-viticole de la région Languedoc-Roussillon en l'occurrence six caves coopératives reflétant la diversité des organisations économiques de ce type et constituant l'acteur majeur de la filière vini-viticole régionale. Plus précisément, cette recherche, réalisée à travers des études de cas, a été centrée sur l'hypothèse selon laquelle celui qui détient les moyens de saisie, de gestion et de traitement des informations utilisés dans la mise en œuvre de réglementation sur la traçabilité/sécurité des aliments, détient une partie du pouvoir susceptible de peser dans les relations internes à l'entreprise et externes avec ses fournisseurs ou ses clients et favoriser ainsi les changements organisationnels. Les résultats de cette recherche valident l'hypothèse de deux manières : l'utilisation des TIC dans la mise en œuvre de la réglementation sur la sécurité/traçabilité des aliments augmente le pouvoir de l'unité de production - commercialisation du vin sur les viticulteurs - adhérents qui produisent les raisins, ces derniers tendant à devenir les sous-traitants de l'unité de production - commercialisation du vin. Mais simultanément, dans les relations avec la clientèle, l'utilisation des TIC dans la mise en œuvre de la réglementation sur la sécurité/traçabilité des aliments par les caves ne donne pas à ces dernières un ascendant suffisant à l'encontre de leur clientèle. Le pouvoir des caves est en effet subordonné aux exigences de la clientèle qui joue, par ailleurs, de manière variable avec les réglementations sanitaires dans les négociations commerciales.

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    This book is provided by UMR MOISA : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs : CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, IRD - Montpellier, France in its series Research serial MOISA with number 200912 and published in 2009.
    Handle: RePEc:umr:ecbook:200912
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