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Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Editor

Listed:
  • Allen, Robert C.
    (Professor of Economic History, University of Oxford)

  • Bengtsson, Tommy
    (Professor of Demography and Economic History, Lund University)

  • Dribe, Martin
    (Associate Professor of Economic History, Lund University)

Abstract

Why did Europe experience industrialisation and modern economic growth before China, India or Japan? This is one of the most fundamental questions in Economic History and one that has provoked intense debate. The main concern of this book is to determine when the gap in living standards between the East and the West emerged. The established view, dating back to Adam Smith, is that the gap emerged long before the Industrial Revolution, perhaps thousands of years ago. While this view has been called into question - and many of the explanations for it greatly undermined - the issue demands much more empirical research than has yet been undertaken. How did the standard of living in Europe and Asia compare in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? The present book proposes an answer by considering evidence of three sorts. The first is economic, focusing on income, food production, wages, and prices. The second is demographic, comparing heights, life expectancy and other demographic indicators. The third combines the economic and demographic by investigating the demographic vulnerability to short-term economic stress. The contributions show the highly complex and diverse pattern of the standard of living in the pre-industrial period. The general picture emerging is not one of a great divergence between East and West, but instead one of considerable similarities. These similarities not only pertain to economic aspects of standard of living but also to demography and the sensitivity to economic fluctuations. In addition to these similarities, there were also pronounced regional differences within the East and within the West - regional differences that in many cases were larger than the average differences between Europe and Asia. This clearly highlights the importance of analysing several dimensions of the standard of living, as well as the danger of neglecting regional, social, and household specific differences when assessing the level of well-being in the past. Contributors to this volume - Kenneth Pomeranz, University of California, Irvine Li Bozhong, Tsinghua University Osamu Saito, Hitotsubashi University Prasannan Parthasarathi, Boston College Robert C. Allen, Oxford University P. Hoffman, D. Jacks, P. Levin and P. Lindert, California Institute of Technology and University of California, Davis Jan Luiten van Zanden, IISG Jaime Reis, University of Lisbon Richard Steckel, Ohio State University Boris Mironov, St. Petersburg State University E. Hammel and A. Gullickson, University of California, Berkley and Columbia University Hans Christian Johansen, University of Southern Denmark M. Breschi, A. Fornasin, and G. Gonano, University of Udine T. Bengtsson and M. Dribe, Lund University M. Oris, G. Alter and M. Neven, University of Geneva, Indiana University and University of Liege C. Campbell and J. Lee, UCLA and University of Michigan N.Tsuya and S. Kurosu, Keio University and Keitaku University

Suggested Citation

  • Allen, Robert C. & Bengtsson, Tommy & Dribe, Martin (ed.), 2005. "Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199280681.
  • Handle: RePEc:oxp:obooks:9780199280681
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Eberhardt, Markus & Vollrath, Dietrich, 2016. "The Role of Crop Type in Cross-Country Income Differences," CEPR Discussion Papers 11248, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Adolfo Meisel-Roca & Juliana Jaramillo-Echeverri & María Teresa Ramírez-Giraldo, 2018. "Más de cien años de avances en el nivel de vida: El caso de Colombia," Cuadernos de Historia Económica 46, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    3. Studer, Roman, 2008. "India and the Great Divergence: Assessing the Efficiency of Grain Markets in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century India," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 68(02), pages 393-437, June.
    4. Andrés Calderón-Fernández & Héctor García-Montero & Enrique Llopis-Agelán, 2017. "New research guidelines for living standards, consumer baskets, and prices in Madrid and Mexico," Working Papers 097, "Carlo F. Dondena" Centre for Research on Social Dynamics (DONDENA), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi.
    5. Joseph Molitoris & Martin Dribe, 2016. "Industrialization and inequality revisited: mortality differentials and vulnerability to economic stress in Stockholm, 1878–1926," European Review of Economic History, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(2), pages 176-197.
    6. Angeles, Luis, 2012. "On the causes of the African Slave Trade," SIRE Discussion Papers 2012-91, Scottish Institute for Research in Economics (SIRE).
    7. Steckel, Richard H., 2009. "Heights and human welfare: Recent developments and new directions," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 1-23, January.
    8. Jean-Francois Maystadt & Giuseppe Migali, 2017. "The transmission of health across 7 generations in China, 1789-1906," Working Papers 147116320, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
    9. Zan, Luca & Deng, Kent, 2017. "Micro foundations in the Great Divergence debate: opening up a new perspective," Economic History Working Papers 68944, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Economic History.
    10. Tracy Dennison & Steven Nafziger, 2011. "Micro-Perspectives on Living Standards in Nineteenth-Century Russia," Department of Economics Working Papers 2011-07, Department of Economics, Williams College.
    11. Deng, Kent & O'Brien, Patrick, 2014. "Clarifying data for reciprocal comparisons of nutritional standards of living in England and the Yangtze Delta (Jiangnan), c.1644 – c.1840," Economic History Working Papers 59303, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Economic History.
    12. Ernesto López Losa & Santiago Piquero Zarauz, 2016. "Spanish real wages in the Northern-Western European mirror, 1500-1800. On the timings and magnitude of the Little Divergence in Europe," Documentos de Trabajo (DT-AEHE) 1607, Asociacion Espa–ola de Historia Economica.
    13. Francisco J. Beltran Tapia & Julio Martinez-Galarrage, 2015. "Inequality and poverty in a developing economy: Evidence from regional data (Spain, 1860-1930)," Working Papers 0078, European Historical Economics Society (EHES).
    14. Pim de Zwart, 2011. "Real wages at the Cape of Good Hope: A long-term perspective, 1652-1912," Working Papers 0013, Utrecht University, Centre for Global Economic History.
    15. Kurosaki, Takashi, 2011. "Wages in Kind and Economic Development: Historical and Contemporary Evidence from Asia," PRIMCED Discussion Paper Series 11, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    16. Voigtländer, Nico & Voth, Hans-Joachim, 2009. "The Three Horsemen of Growth: Plague, War and Urbanization in Early Modern Europe," CEPR Discussion Papers 7275, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    17. Dribe, Martin & Olsson, Mats & Svensson, Patrick, 2015. "Famines in the Nordic countries, AD 536–1875," Lund Papers in Economic History 138, Lund University, Department of Economic History.

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