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The effect of the degree of foreign ownership on firms' performance


  • Hintošová Aneta Bobenič


  • Kubíková Zuzana

    () (University of Economics in Bratislava, Faculty of Business Economics with seat in Košice, Department of Management, Tajovského 13, 041 30 Košice, Slovakia.)


A large number of studies have compared the performance of foreign-owned and domestic firms. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the effect of the degree of foreign ownership on a firm's performance. We attempt to fill this gap in the literature by conducting research that distinguishes not only between domestic and foreign-owned firms, but also between wholly and partly foreign-owned firms. We also examine the possible non-linearity of the performance-ownership relationship. We divide the firms in our study into three groups by their ownership - domestic, foreign, and joint ventures. We use a regression analysis to explore whether foreign ownership influences the firms' performance, measured by several variables such as profitability, innovation performance (measured by gross expenditures on research and development activities), numbers of employees involved in research and development, production, value added, leverage and net working capital intensity. The results of our research indicate that there is a statistically significant difference in firms' performance as a result of foreign ownership in all variables except the number of research and development employees and leverage. Moreover, we show that foreign ownership and performance are linked by an inverted U-shaped relationship. A firm’s performance increases with greater foreign ownership up to the range of 61-65 %, and declines thereafter.

Suggested Citation

  • Hintošová Aneta Bobenič & Kubíková Zuzana, 2016. "The effect of the degree of foreign ownership on firms' performance," Review of Economic Perspectives, De Gruyter Open, vol. 16(1), pages 29-44, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:vrs:reoecp:v:16:y:2016:i:1:p:29-44:n:3

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kolasa, Marcin, 2009. "Structural heterogeneity or asymmetric shocks? Poland and the euro area through the lens of a two-country DSGE model," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 1245-1269, November.
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    6. Gust, Christopher J. & Lopez-Salido, J. David & Smith, Matthew E. & Herbst, Edward, 2012. "The Empirical Implications of the Interest-Rate Lower Bound," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-83, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), revised Jan 2016.
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