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Graphical representation of multivariate data using Chernoff faces


  • Rafal Raciborski

    () (Emory University)


Chernoff (1971, Technical Report 71, Department of Statistics, Stan- ford University; 1973, Journal of the American Statistical Association 68: 361– 368) proposed the use of cartoon-like faces to represent points in k dimensions. This article describes a Stata implementation of a face-generating algorithm using the method proposed by Flury (1980, Technical Report 3, Institute of Mathemati- cal Statistics and Actuarial Science, Bern University), Schu ̈pbach (1987, Technical Report 25, Institute of Mathematical Statistics and Acturial Science, Bern Univer- sity), and Friendly (1991, I present examples of applying Chernoff faces to data clustering and outlier detection. Copyright 2009 by StataCorp LP.

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  • Rafal Raciborski, 2009. "Graphical representation of multivariate data using Chernoff faces," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(3), pages 374-387, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:tsj:stataj:v:9:y:2009:i:3:p:374-387

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. William Gould, 2001. "Statistical software certification," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 1(1), pages 29-50, November.
    2. Albert Satorra, 1990. "Robustness issues in structural equation modeling: a review of recent developments," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 367-386, November.
    3. David Grayson & Herbert Marsh, 1994. "Identification with deficient rank loading matrices in confirmatory factor analysis: Multitrait-multimethod models," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 59(1), pages 121-134, March.
    4. Nicholas J. Cox, 2008. "Speaking Stata: Correlation with confidence, or Fisher's z revisited," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 8(3), pages 413-439, September.
    5. Sophia Rabe-Hesketh & Anders Skrondal & Andrew Pickles, 2002. "Reliable estimation of generalized linear mixed models using adaptive quadrature," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(1), pages 1-21, February.
    6. Karl Jöreskog & Arthur Goldberger, 1972. "Factor analysis by generalized least squares," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 243-260, September.
    7. Ledyard Tucker & Charles Lewis, 1973. "A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 38(1), pages 1-10, March.
    8. Kenneth A. Bollen & Robert A. Stine, 1992. "Bootstrapping Goodness-of-Fit Measures in Structural Equation Models," Sociological Methods & Research, , vol. 21(2), pages 205-229, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Constanza Martínez & Freddy Cepeda, 2015. "Reaction Functions of the Participants in Colombia’s Large-value Payment System," Borradores de Economia 875, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.

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    chernoff; Chernoff faces; graphs;


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