A Comparison of the Effects of Exogenous Oil Supply Shocks on Output and Inflation in the G7 Countries
A comparison of the effects of exogenous shocks to global crude oil production on seven major industrialized economies suggests a fair degree of similarity in the real growth responses. An exogenous oil supply disruption typically causes a temporary reduction in real GDP growth that is concentrated in the second year after the shock. Inflation responses are more varied. The median CPI inflation response peaks after three to four quarters. Exogenous oil supply disruptions need not generate sustained inflation or stagflation. Typical responses include a fall in the real wage, higher short-term interest rates, and a depreciating currency with respect to the dollar. Despite many qualitative similarities, there is strong statistical evidence that the responses to exogenous oil supply disruptions differ across G7 countries. For suitable subsets of countries, homogeneity cannot be ruled out. A counterfactual historical exercise suggests that the evolution of CPI inflation in the G7 countries would have been similar overall to the actual path even in the absence of exogenous shocks to oil production, consistent with a monetary explanation of the inflation of the 1970s. There is no evidence that the 1973-1974 and 2002-2003 oil supply shocks had a substantial impact on real growth in any G7 country, whereas the 1978-1979, 1980, and 1990-1991 shocks contributed to lower growth in at least some G7 countries. (JEL: E31, E32, Q43) (c) 2008 by the European Economic Association.
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Volume (Year): 6 (2008)
Issue (Month): 1 (March)
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