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Exploring exclusion in innovation systems: case of plantation agriculture in India


  • K.J. Joseph


In the context of the inclusive development discourse to extend the benefits of economic growth to disadvantaged groups, this paper postulates that innovation is the key driver of development and that the underlying systems of innovation in general and the learning, innovation and competence-building process in particular should become inclusive. Innovation is generally assumed to apply to the industrial and high-tech sectors; however, in order to achieve inclusion, this paper argues that knowledge intensification for innovation could strengthen and reach sectors that are labour-intensive and labour-extensive in developing countries. Building on the taxonomy of social exclusion developed by Amartya Sen, the study evolves new conceptual categories such as subordinated inclusion, illusive inclusion, sustained exclusion and transient exclusion. The case of innovation system in India's plantation sector, despite concerted policies, presents the empirical evidence for the prevalence of the varied forms of exclusion articulated by Amartya Sen and throws light on the new forms of exclusion. The study finds the persistence of active exclusion along with subordinated inclusion in the organization of commodity boards and institutional innovations for the promotion of production and marketing. Subordinated inclusion appears to prevail in the institutional arrangements for research and development and institutional innovations in the labour market result in illusive inclusion.

Suggested Citation

  • K.J. Joseph, 2014. "Exploring exclusion in innovation systems: case of plantation agriculture in India," Innovation and Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(1), pages 73-90, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:riadxx:v:4:y:2014:i:1:p:73-90
    DOI: 10.1080/2157930X.2014.890352

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    Cited by:

    1. Jie Wu & Steven Si, 2018. "Poverty reduction through entrepreneurship: incentives, social networks, and sustainability," Asian Business & Management, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 17(4), pages 243-259, September.

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