IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Understanding Municipal Service Integration: An Exploratory Study of 311 Contact Centers


  • Taewoo Nam
  • Theresa A. Pardo


We consider 311 non-emergency contact centers as city-level service integration initiatives. By using a cross-case study of 311 centers at New York and Philadelphia, we found critical success factors and challenges of service integration. This paper suggests multidimensional (technological, organizational, and cross-organizational) implications. Stable operation of 311 centers requires timely investment in having a technological system best fitting for service integration, but city governments with limited resources should instead consider adaptive strategies for overcoming under-equipped situations. While the lack of interoperability remains as a critical barrier to system-level integration, customer service agents play a pivotal role in connecting non-interoperable systems to front office systems and back office systems. Thus training for qualified customer service professionals is key to the seamless operation of 311 contact centers. Turf guarding often raises cross-organizational concerns, but the top management's administrative and political support helps resolve inter-organizational conflicts. Based on these findings from the exploratory study, this article proposes significant ideas for further research on municipal service integration through 311 contact centers.

Suggested Citation

  • Taewoo Nam & Theresa A. Pardo, 2014. "Understanding Municipal Service Integration: An Exploratory Study of 311 Contact Centers," Journal of Urban Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(1), pages 57-78, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:cjutxx:v:21:y:2014:i:1:p:57-78
    DOI: 10.1080/10630732.2014.887933

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:cjutxx:v:21:y:2014:i:1:p:57-78. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Longhurst). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.