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Convergence, clustering and their effects on attendance in the Japan Professional Baseball League


  • Eiji Yamamura
  • Inyong Shin


In this research, using a panel data set for the Japan Professional Baseball League (JPBL) during the post-WWII period, we apply the technique developed by Hobijn and Franses (2000) to examine the competitive balance from the view point of convergence and its effect upon game attendance. The JPBL comprises two leagues, the Central League (CL) and the Pacific League (PL). The CL is far more popular with fans than the PL. Our estimation results showed that the number of the PL clusters continues to go towards unity, thereby raising the uncertainty of the outcome to increase the PL game attendance more rapidly. Also, attendance by CL fans tends to be more inelastic with team performance than for the PL. Therefore, the PL payroll was more elastic to wins than that of the CL. The features of each League have crucial impacts on the outcomes and the behaviours of team insiders such as players and managers.

Suggested Citation

  • Eiji Yamamura & Inyong Shin, 2009. "Convergence, clustering and their effects on attendance in the Japan Professional Baseball League," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(25), pages 3257-3265.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:41:y:2009:i:25:p:3257-3265
    DOI: 10.1080/00036840701367697

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. T. S. Breusch & A. R. Pagan, 1980. "The Lagrange Multiplier Test and its Applications to Model Specification in Econometrics," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 239-253.
    2. Pepall, Lynne M & Richards, Daniel J, 2001. "Reach for the Stars: A Strategic Bidding Game," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(272), pages 489-504, November.
    3. Peter Groothuis & Richard Hill & Timothy Perri, 2004. "Early Entry in the NBA Draft: The Influence of Unraveling, Human Capital and Option Value," Working Papers 04-05, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, revised 2005.
    4. Rosen, Sherwin, 1981. "The Economics of Superstars," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(5), pages 845-858, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. yamamura, eiji, 2008. "Game Information, Local Heroes, And Their Effect On Attendance: The Case Of The Japanese Baseball League," MPRA Paper 10303, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Michael A. Leeds & Sumi Sakata, 2012. "Take Me Out to the Yakyushiai," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 13(1), pages 34-52, February.
    3. Yamamura, Eiji, 2013. "Emergence of a professional sports league and human capital formation for sports: The Japanese Professional Football League," MPRA Paper 44691, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. yamamura, eiji, 2006. "Team Payroll, Competitive Balance, and Team Performance in the Japan Professional Baseball League: A Study using 1993-2004 Panel Data," MPRA Paper 10836, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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