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The era of the 24-hour society?: assessing changes in work timing using a Japanese time use survey


  • Sachiko Kuroda
  • Isamu Yamamoto


Using data from a Japanese time use survey, we show a noteworthy increase in the share of employees working at unusual hours (late night and early morning) over a period of a decade since the mid-1990s. When controlling for changes in hours worked, however, we find that the notable increase in the fraction of people at work at unusual hours was for low-income nonregular employees (part-time, temporary and contract workers) while relatively higher income regular employees' work timing remains stable. These observations imply that there is a trend of diversification of work timing in Japan between regular and nonregular employees. A possible explanation is that the increase in the average hours worked per weekday by regular employees, possibly because of the spread of the 5-day workweek since the 1990s, increased services and goods demand at unusual hours as they returned home. An Oaxaca--Blinder type decomposition suggests that such an increase in the average hours worked by regular employees explains partially the rise in the employment rate of nonregular employees at unusual times.

Suggested Citation

  • Sachiko Kuroda & Isamu Yamamoto, 2012. "The era of the 24-hour society?: assessing changes in work timing using a Japanese time use survey," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(11), pages 1035-1038, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:apeclt:v:19:y:2012:i:11:p:1035-1038 DOI: 10.1080/13504851.2011.613740

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Edward C. Norton & Hua Wang & Chunrong Ai, 2004. "Computing interaction effects and standard errors in logit and probit models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(2), pages 154-167, June.
    2. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    3. Manuel Frondel & Jorg Peters & Colin Vance, 2008. "Identifying the Rebound: Evidence from a German Household Panel," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 145-164.
    4. Ai, Chunrong & Norton, Edward C., 2003. "Interaction terms in logit and probit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 123-129, July.
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