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Labor Market Effects of Immigration in the United States and Europe: Substitution vs. Complementarity

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  • Gang, Ira N
  • Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L

Abstract

This paper examines the impact of immigrants on the income of various groups of resident workers in the United States and Europe. Our approach features the use of a production technology incorporating education, experience, and unskilled labor as inputs. This contrasts with the assumption used in earlier studies that native-born and immigrant labor are distinct inputs into production. We find that in both United States and European production, education, unskilled labor and experience are complementary inputs. Based on these results, simulations of the impact of immigration on residents are carried out. The absolute magnitude of these effects is found to be very small.

Suggested Citation

  • Gang, Ira N & Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L, 1994. "Labor Market Effects of Immigration in the United States and Europe: Substitution vs. Complementarity," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 7(2), pages 157-175.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:jopoec:v:7:y:1994:i:2:p:157-75
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