IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Negotiation as a Learning Process


  • John G. Cross

    (Department of Economics University of Michigan)


This paper presents a discussion of the role of adapting expectations in the bargaining process. Negotiators are charactenzed as persons who choose bargaining strategies in their attempt to optimize their payoffs from the situation. These strategies are contingent on each party's perception of the strategy of his opponent, and if these perceptions contain errors, expectations will change and this will lead in turn to a modification of each party's strategy choice. The payoff demands and manipulative moves which charactenze the bargaining process are seen as combinations of actions which are specified in the original bargaining plans of the parties and of changes in the plans themselves. The influence of the learnmg process on the settlement point is described as well as some empirical implications of the theory in general.

Suggested Citation

  • John G. Cross, 1977. "Negotiation as a Learning Process," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 21(4), pages 581-606, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:jocore:v:21:y:1977:i:4:p:581-606

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Uwe Jirjahn & Jens Mohrenweiser & Uschi Backesā€Gellner, 2011. "Works Councils and Learning: On the Dynamic Dimension of Codetermination," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(3), pages 427-447, August.
    2. Anderton,Charles H. & Carter,John R., 2009. "Principles of Conflict Economics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521875578, April.
    3. Ruiz Estrada, Mario Arturo & Koutronas, Evangelos, 2016. "Terrorist attack assessment: Paris November 2015 and Brussels March 2016," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 553-571.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sae:jocore:v:21:y:1977:i:4:p:581-606. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (SAGE Publications). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.