IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

What Does Integration Signify?: Its Origin and Optimism for the Global Economy


  • Choo, Myung-Gun

    () (Sejong Institution)


I. Origin of Integration in Human History : Since life first began on earth 3.5 billions years ago, countless species have appeared and disappeared strictly according to the law of the jungle where only the fittest survived. Before the emergence of mankind, the earth had already gone through five mass extinctions with each causing the ecological system to dramatically evolve. The mammals, of which the human race is a part, only began to thrive after the last mass extinction some 65 million years ago. Since then mankind has survived and evolved through several glacial periods. Through the continuous process of moving north during interglacial periods and then south to the equatorial zone to survive the ice ages, mankind was able to put down roots across the globe. With the end of the last glacial period, i.e., fifteen thousand years ago, humans began to engage in agricultural activities instead of hunting and this in turn led to the emergence of large societies owing to higher productivity. Also, the appearance of sophisticated weaponry enabled the militarily strong to forcibly unite the surrounding clans to larger tribal societies. This along with advancements in transportation systems, led to the birth of the nation states. Larger societies are also the consequences of awfully cruel wars as well as of civilization and technology. After a number of large-scale massacres, a mankind tries to look for ways to live together less violently. They found the answer in trade and customs unions which originally emerged as a way to overcome trade barriers. The role of Zollverein, the customs union of the German states was means of the German unification and ultimately it led to the birth of the European Union. Since the Treaty of Rome in 1957, which officially established the first free trade agreement of the region, economic integration has been evolving to the rise of the Euro in 1999. In the first decade of 21st century, we have witnessed that the Euro system without fiscal policy integration are entangled in a series of debt crises in several member countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Choo, Myung-Gun, 2012. "What Does Integration Signify?: Its Origin and Optimism for the Global Economy," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 27, pages 209-215.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:integr:0568

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Cheng, Ai-Ru & Jahan-Parvar, Mohammad R. & Rothman, Philip, 2010. "An empirical investigation of stock market behavior in the Middle East and North Africa," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 413-427, June.
    2. Gerlach, Stefan & Smets, Frank, 1995. "Contagious speculative attacks," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 45-63, March.
    3. Guglielmo Caporale & Nikitas Pittis & Nicola Spagnolo, 2006. "Volatility transmission and financial crises," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 30(3), pages 376-390, September.
    4. Flavin, Thomas J. & Panopoulou, Ekaterini & Unalmis, Deren, 2008. "On the stability of domestic financial market linkages in the presence of time-varying volatility," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 280-301, December.
    5. Baur, Dirk, 2003. "Testing for contagion--mean and volatility contagion," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(4-5), pages 405-422, December.
    6. Corsetti, Giancarlo & Pericoli, Marcello & Sbracia, Massimo, 2005. "'Some contagion, some interdependence': More pitfalls in tests of financial contagion," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(8), pages 1177-1199, December.
    7. Carmen M. Reinhart & Graciela L. Kaminsky, 1999. "The Twin Crises: The Causes of Banking and Balance-of-Payments Problems," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 473-500, June.
    8. Yu, Jung-Suk & Hassan, M. Kabir, 2008. "Global and regional integration of the Middle East and North African (MENA) stock markets," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 482-504, August.
    9. Chen, Shiu-Sheng, 2009. "Predicting the bear stock market: Macroeconomic variables as leading indicators," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 211-223, February.
    10. Alper, C. Emre & Yilmaz, Kamil, 2004. "Volatility and contagion: evidence from the Istanbul stock exchange," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 353-367, December.
    11. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
    12. Garcia, Rene & Perron, Pierre, 1996. "An Analysis of the Real Interest Rate under Regime Shifts," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(1), pages 111-125, February.
    13. Masson, Paul, 1999. "Contagion:: macroeconomic models with multiple equilibria," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 587-602, August.
    14. Brunetti, Celso & Scotti, Chiara & Mariano, Roberto S. & Tan, Augustine H.H., 2008. "Markov switching GARCH models of currency turmoil in Southeast Asia," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 104-128, June.
    15. Paulo Horta & Carlos Mendes & Isabel Vieira, 2008. "Contagion effects of the US Subprime Crisis on Developed Countries," CEFAGE-UE Working Papers 2008_08, University of Evora, CEFAGE-UE (Portugal).
    16. Bekaert, Geert & Harvey, Campbell R. & Lundblad, Christian, 2005. "Does financial liberalization spur growth?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 3-55, July.
    17. Gray, Stephen F., 1996. "Modeling the conditional distribution of interest rates as a regime-switching process," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 27-62, September.
    18. Kaminsky, Graciela L. & Reinhart, Carmen M., 2000. "On crises, contagion, and confusion," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 145-168, June.
    19. Smimou, Kamal & Karabegovic, Amela, 2010. "On the relationship between economic freedom and equity returns in the emerging markets: Evidence from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) stock markets," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 119-151, June.
    20. R.K. Kaundal & Sanjeet Sharma, 2010. "Stock Market Integration," Foreign Trade Review, , vol. 45(3), pages 3-18, October.
    21. Soofi Abdol S, 2008. "Global Financial Integration and the MENA Countries: Evidence from Equity and Money Markets," Review of Middle East Economics and Finance, De Gruyter, vol. 4(2), pages 93-116, April.
    22. Cai, Jun, 1994. "A Markov Model of Switching-Regime ARCH," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 12(3), pages 309-316, July.
    23. Haile, Fasika & Pozo, Susan, 2008. "Currency crisis contagion and the identification of transmission channels," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 572-588, October.
    24. Lagoarde-Segot, Thomas & Lucey, Brian M., 2007. "International portfolio diversification: Is there a role for the Middle East and North Africa?," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 401-416, December.
    25. Mariano Roberto S & Gultekin Bulent N & Ozmucur Suleyman & Shabbir Tayyeb & Alper C. Emre, 2004. "Prediction of Currency Crises: Case of Turkey," Review of Middle East Economics and Finance, De Gruyter, vol. 2(2), pages 1-21, August.
    26. Edwards, Sebastian & Susmel, Raul, 2001. "Volatility dependence and contagion in emerging equity markets," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 505-532, December.
    27. Hamilton, James D. & Susmel, Raul, 1994. "Autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity and changes in regime," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1-2), pages 307-333.
    28. International Monetary Fund, 2000. "Spillovers Through Banking Centers; A Panel Data Analysis," IMF Working Papers 00/88, International Monetary Fund.
    29. Thomas Lagoarde-Segot & Brian M. Lucey, 2009. "Shift-contagion Vulnerability in the MENA Stock Markets," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(10), pages 1478-1497, October.
    30. Van Rijckeghem, Caroline & Weder, Beatrice, 2003. "Spillovers through banking centers: a panel data analysis of bank flows," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 483-509, August.
    31. Van Rijckeghem, Caroline & Weder, Beatrice, 2001. "Sources of contagion: is it finance or trade?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 293-308, August.
    32. Carmen M. Reinhart & Sara Calvo, 1996. "Capital Flows to Latin America: Is There Evidence of Contagion Effects?," Peterson Institute Press: Chapters,in: Guillermo A. Calvo & Morris Goldstein & Eduard Hochreiter (ed.), Private Capital Flows to Emerging Markets After the Mexican Crisis, pages 151-171 Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    33. Caramazza, Francesco & Ricci, Luca & Salgado, Ranil, 2004. "International financial contagion in currency crises," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 51-70, February.
    34. Hamilton, James D, 1989. "A New Approach to the Economic Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series and the Business Cycle," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 357-384, March.
    35. Filardo, Andrew J, 1994. "Business-Cycle Phases and Their Transitional Dynamics," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 12(3), pages 299-308, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Integration; National Strategy; Korea; Global Economy;

    JEL classification:

    • F01 - International Economics - - General - - - Global Outlook
    • F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order and Integration
    • F59 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - Other


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ris:integr:0568. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jong-Eun Lee). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.