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Endogenous and Exogenous Money Concepts: An Empirical Investigation from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia




This study examines the long run equilibrium relationship between the demand for loans and deposits in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using the Cointegration technique. In addition, the study investigates both the short run dynamics and the direction of the causality in the long and short run between the demand for loans and deposits in order to test the endogeneity/ exogeneity of money supply utilizing the vector error correction model (VECM) technique and the Wu-Hausman exogeneity test. The Cointegration test indicates the existence of long run equilibrium between loans and deposits. The causality tests indicate that there is a unidirectional causal relationship from deposits to loans in the long but not in the short run. In addition, the Wu-Hausman exogeneity test indicates that the null hypothesis of exogeneity of loans and GNPin the deposits equation could not be rejected. This result indicates that money supply is not endogenous since the demand for credit does not create money. Instead, one may conclude that money supply is mostly exogenously determined under the control of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA).

Suggested Citation

  • Alqudair, Khalid H.A., 2006. "Endogenous and Exogenous Money Concepts: An Empirical Investigation from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio Industria Artigianato Agricoltura di Genova, vol. 59(2), pages 143-159.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:ecoint:0082

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Andrew K. Rose, 2000. "One money, one market: the effect of common currencies on trade," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 15(30), pages 7-46, April.
    2. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    3. Dilip Dutta & Nasiruddin Ahmed, 2004. "An aggregate import demand function for India: a cointegration analysis," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(10), pages 607-613.
    4. Kevin C Cheng, 2004. "A Reexamination of Korea’s Trade Flows; What Has Changed and What Explains These Changes?," IMF Working Papers 04/145, International Monetary Fund.
    5. Sergio De Nardis & Claudio Vicarelli, 2003. "The Impact of the Euro on Trade: The (Early) Effect is Not So Large," Economics Working Papers 017, European Network of Economic Policy Research Institutes.
    6. Choi, E. Kwan & Harrigan, James, 2003. "Handbook of International Trade," Staff General Research Papers Archive 11375, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    7. repec:syd:wpaper:2001-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Ronald McKinnon, 2002. "Optimum currency areas and the European experience," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 10(2), pages 343-364, July.
    9. Houthakker, Hendrik S & Magee, Stephen P, 1969. "Income and Price Elasticities in World Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 51(2), pages 111-125, May.
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    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies


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