IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Tax-Spend or Spend-Tax: An Ampirical Survey on Turkey


  • Akca, Hasim

    () (Cukurova University)

  • Bilgin, Cevat

    (Cukurova University)


In general, governments attempt to prepare balanced budgets. But countries’ specific economic conditions often lead to politicians to prepare budgets with deficits. However, if the economic policies can not be sustained, economic crisis become unavoidable. There is a causal relationship between tax revenues and increase in public expenditures. This relation could take the form of tax-spend or spend-tax, or both instruments could be synchronized. This study examines Turkey’s budget in respect to taxation and public expenditures. Examination of data for 1924-2009 suggests that it is better first to collect tax revenues and then plan the public spending program.

Suggested Citation

  • Akca, Hasim & Bilgin, Cevat, 2013. "Tax-Spend or Spend-Tax: An Ampirical Survey on Turkey," Business and Economics Research Journal, Uludag University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, vol. 4(1), pages 143-143, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:buecrj:0114

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
    2. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    3. Aghion, Philippe & Howitt, Peter, 1992. "A Model of Growth through Creative Destruction," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(2), pages 323-351, March.
    4. Ashoka Mody & Kamil Yilmaz, 2002. "Imported Machinery for Export Competitiveness," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 16(1), pages 23-48, June.
    5. Lee, Jong-Wha, 1995. "Capital goods imports and long-run growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 91-110, October.
    6. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-1580, November.
    7. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    8. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    9. Y-c. Chuang, 2002. "The Trade-Induced Learning Effect on Growth: Cross-Country Evidence," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(2), pages 137-154.
    10. Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774501.
    11. Esfahani, Hadi Salehi, 1991. "Exports, imports, and economic growth in semi-industrialized countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 93-116, January.
    12. M. Imam Alam, 2003. "Manufactured Exports, Capital Good Imports, and Economic Growth: Experience of Mexico and Brazil," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(4), pages 85-105.
    13. World Bank, 2008. "Global Economic Prospects 2008 : Technology Diffusion in the Developing World," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6335, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Tax-spend; Spend-tax; Fiscal Synchronization; Cointegration;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • H69 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Other
    • H72 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - State and Local Budget and Expenditures


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ris:buecrj:0114. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Adem Anbar). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.