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Une comparaison France-Europe des taux de chômage. Structure de la population active et distribution des taux de chômage catégoriels

Listed author(s):
  • Yannick L'horty
  • Anne Saint-Martin

[eng] France is one of the most dramatically concerned with high unemployment amongst European countries. This is true regardless of whether one looks at aggregate unemployment rates, at shares of unemployed workers in the total labor force, or at uderemployment rates (that take account of involuntary part-time employment). That poor performance cannot be explained in terms of mismatch. The structure of the French labor supply, in terms of either education level, age or gender, lies in a mean position vis-à-vis the rest of Europe (even though it seems to differ a bit more from those of Northern European countries). Neither can the French handicap be explained by a pecular feature of the demand for labor. Mismatch unemployment accounts for only a small fraction of the gap between the French and European unemployment rates. In fact, mismatch looks more like a European than like a national problem. Higher unemployment in France hits all categories of labor in a quite uniform way. [fre] La France est l'un des pays européens les plus touchés par le chômage, que l'on observe la hiérarchie des taux de chômage, celle des parts des chômeurs dans la population en âge de travailler ou celle des taux de sous-emploi (en tenant compte du temps partiel, volontaire ou contraint). Cette mauvaise performance ne s'explique pas par une structure défavorable de la population française en termes de niveaux de diplômes, de classes d'âge ou de sexe. La structure de l'offre de travail en France est dans une position intermédiaire vis-à-vis du reste de l'Europe, même si elle apparaît plus éloignée de celle des pays du nord de l'Europe continentale, que de celle des autres pays. Le handicap français ne réside pas davantage dans une structure particulière de la demande de travail. La dimension purement catégorielle du chômage n'explique qu'une fraction assez marginale des écarts de taux de chômage entre la France et les différents pays européens : le chômage d'inadéquation est un problème européen plus que national. Le chômage plus élevé de la France touche assez uniformément l'ensemble de ses segments de main-d'œuvre.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

Volume (Year): 12 (1997)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 117-155

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1997_num_12_1_1015
Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1997.1015
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