Micro-entreprises, croissance et mutations de l'emploi dans les pays en transition
[eng] Self-employment, development and labour allocation in transition countries This paper highlights the role of the self-employed in transition economies. It focuses on the process of labour allocation and on development paths. It defines three sectors, two of which - industry and services - show specific innovation patterns. These innovations, which follow a Schumpeterian creative destruction process, generate flows on the labour market. The third sector (subsistence agriculture, informal activities) is seen as a form of unemployment specific to transition. By comparing this theoretical framework with the Polish experience, the authors put forward an original indicator of transition: the ratio of the self-employed's income in services to the average wage in industry. It evaluates both the maturity of the transformation and the orientation of development path. [fre] L'objet de cette contribution est de montrer le rôle essentiel joué par les microentreprises dans le processus de réallocation de la main-d'œuvre et de consolidation de la croissance dans les pays en transition. Notre analyse distingue trois secteurs, dont deux — l'industrie et les services — sont caractérisés par un mode d'innovation spécifique qui, au travers d'un processus schumpétérien de destruction créatrice, détermine les flux sur le marché du travail. Ce cadre d'analyse, que nous confrontons au cas polonais, nous amène à proposer un indicateur pour évaluer l'avancement et l'orientation de la transition : le différentiel de revenu moyen entre le statut d'entrepreneur individuel et de salarié dans l'industrie.
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