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Choix de localisation, coûts de transport et asymétries régionales

Listed author(s):
  • Miren Lafourcade
  • Jean-Philippe Tropeano

[eng] Transportation costs and monopoly location in presence of regional disparities This article aims at analysing the impact of the level of transportation costs on the location choice of a monopolist. We consider two asymmetric regions. The heterogeneity of space lies in both regional incomes and population sizes: the first region is endowed with wide income spreads allocated among few consumers whereas the second one is highly populated however not as wealthy. Among the results, we show that a low transportation costs induces the firm to exploit size effects through locating in the most populated region. Moreover, a small transport cost decrease may induce a net welfare loss, thus allowing for regional development policies which do not rely on inter-regional transportation infrastructures. cost decrease may induce a net welfare loss, thus allowing for regional development policies which do not rely on inter-regional transportation infrastructures. [fre] Cet article développe une statique comparative de l'impact de différents scénarios d'investissement (projet d'infrastructure conduisant à une baisse modérée ou à une forte baisse du coût de transport inter-régional) sur le choix de localisation d'une entreprise en situation de monopole, au sein d'un espace intégré composé de deux régions aux populations et revenus hétérogènes. La première région, faiblement peuplée, présente de fortes disparités de revenus, tandis que la seconde, plus homogène en termes de revenu, représente un marché potentiel plus étendu. On montre que l'hétérogénéité des revenus constitue la force dominante du modèle lorsque le scénario d'investissement privilégié par les politiques publiques conduit à des gains substantiels du point de vue du coût de transport entre les deux régions. L'effet de richesse, lorsqu'il est associé à une forte disparité des revenus, n'incite pas l'entreprise à exploiter son pouvoir de marché au détriment de la région la moins riche de l'économie. On montre de plus que le choix de localisation du monopole n'est pas toujours optimal et que la baisse du coût de transport est susceptible de détériorer le bien-être social des deux régions, ce qui pose la question de la légitimité d'une politique de désenclavement fondée sur le développement des infrastructures inter-régionales. Néanmoins, l'octroi d'une « prime d'aménagement du territoire » est susceptible de corriger, lorsqu'elles existent, les distorsions liées à une forte baisse du coût de transport.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue économique.

Volume (Year): 51 (2000)
Issue (Month): 6 ()
Pages: 1453-1476

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Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_2000_num_51_6_410593
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