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Les conséquences du traité de 1860 sur le commerce franco-britannique

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  • Gabrielle Cadier
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    [fre] Résumé Le Traité de 1860 est au cœur d'un débat entre partisans du Libre-échange et tenants du protectionnisme, que ce soit en son temps où il fut très vivement dénonce par les industriels français et défendu par les milieux portuaires et lyonnais ; ou de nos jours : dans les années 1930-1950, les économistes le considéraient comme un des actes bienfaisants qui avaient accéléré les mutations de l'économie française ; aujourd'hui certains historiens économistes le verraient comme une des circonstances qui aggravèrent la Grande Dépression des années 1870-1890 en France. Au-delà de ce débat, l'étude des échanges franco-britanniques nous montre qu'en ce qui concerne le commerce, la France tira du Traité plus d'avantages que le Royaume-Uni, ce qui amena ce pays à refuser de renouveler ce Traité en 1881 quand la France eût unilatéralement relevé ses droits de douane ; la marine marchande française, elle, ne supporta pas la fin du système protecteur et les aides ultérieures de l'État ne lui rendirent guère son ancienne importance. Par contre, la consommation populaire augmenta, ce qui correspondait aux objectifs « saint simoniens » qu'avait Napoléon III en signant ce Traité. [eng] Abstract The 1860 commercial treaty has been the crux of a debate between the supporters of free-trade and those of protection, either in its day when it came under vehement attacks from French industrialists and was upheld by sea-ports concerns and in Lyons, or in our time : in the 1930's and 1950's, economists have viewed it as one of the beneficial steps which helped French economy to move forward ; nowadays, some historians would see it as one of the aggravating circumstances of the Great Depression of the 1870s to the 1890's in France. Beyond this debate, the study ot the anglo- french exchanges shows that as far as trade was concerned, France drew more profits from the treaty than the United Kingdom did, which led the latter to refuse ist renewal in 1881 after France has one-sidedly raised its customs duties ; as for the French merchant navy, it could not face up to the end of the protectionnist system and subsequent helps from the State did not give it back its former importance. On the other hand, public consumption increased, which answered Napoleon Ill's aims when signing the treaty, as inspired by Saint-Simon.

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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Histoire, économie et société.

    Volume (Year): 7 (1988)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 355-380

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:hiseco:hes_0752-5702_1988_num_7_3_2357
    Note: DOI:10.3406/hes.1988.2357
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