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On Measuring Inclusiveness of Growth in Pakistan


  • Saima Asghar

    (Department of Government and Public Policy, National Defense University, Islamabad)

  • Sajid Amin Javed

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad)


Using social opportunity function approach, this work assesses, firstly, the change in and access to education and employment opportunities available to the population and secondly, how equitably these opportunities are distributed. Opportunity Index (OI) and Equity Index of Opportunities (EIO) are calculated to measure and quantify the extent of progress made in these two most important socio-economic components of development. Based on data, extracted from Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) Surveys of 1998-99 and 2007-08, the present work finds that growth process has resulted in increased inequalities both in education and employment opportunities over the study period. Average opportunities available to population increased for education while a decline in average employment opportunities is documented in 2007-08 as compared to 1998-99. OI registered an increase for primary and secondary levels of education. EIO improved at primary level, remained stagnant for secondary level and decreased for literacy rate over the time. Moreover, EIO for employment opportunities, suggesting equitable distribution for employment and paid employment, registered a decrease and opportunities distribution turn inequitable when calculated based on average monthly income earned. Findings of the paper suggest that policies should be focused to actively engage the marginalised groups of the society in growth process through improvement in higher education and more equitable distribution of opportunities.

Suggested Citation

  • Saima Asghar & Sajid Amin Javed, 2011. "On Measuring Inclusiveness of Growth in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 50(4), pages 879-894.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:50:y:2011:i:4:p:879-894

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    Cited by:

    1. Khairul Akmaliah Adham & Hasmiah Kasimin & Nurul Atasha Jamaludin & Siti Khadijah Mohd Ghanie & Nor Azzatunnisak Mohd Khatib & Mohd Fuaad Said, 2016. "Developing a Cybernetics Approach to Analysing Inclusive Growth Constraints," Systemic Practice and Action Research, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 215-234, June.
    2. Sajid Amin Javed & Mohammad Irfan, 2014. "Intergenerational Mobility: Evidence from Pakistan Panel Household Survey," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 53(2), pages 175-203.
    3. Zunia Saif Tirmazee & Maryiam Haroon, 2015. "Growth in Pakistan: Inclusive or Not?," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 54(4), pages 335-350.
    4. Aguirre B., Carlos & Aliaga L., Javier & Herrera J. , Alejandro, 2015. "Cerrando el Círculo: La Educación Superior, el Desarrollo de la Ciencia y Tecnología y el Sistema de Innovación en Bolivia," Documentos de trabajo 9/2015, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC), Universidad Católica Boliviana.

    More about this item


    Inclusive Growth; Inequality; Opportunity Curve; Opportunity Index; Equity Index of Opportunities; Pakistan;

    JEL classification:

    • C46 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Specific Distributions
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development


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