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Ownership Structure and Literacy: Evidence Across Spanish Districts in Late 19th Century


  • Alberto Basso


This paper studies the association between ownership structure and literacy across Spanish districts in the late 19th century. We nd a positive correlation between the ownership rate of the type of livestock mostly used in agriculture (i.e. cattle) and the literacy rate, which is robust to controlling for a large set of factors including spatial correlation. We observe a similar association also for the second type of livestock mostly used in agriculture (i.e. mules). This result suggests that the structure of livestock ownership, which is used as a proxy for land ownership, played a role in shaping literacy rates. We use a province-level analysis to assess the importance of demand and supply channels in determining this correlation.

Suggested Citation

  • Alberto Basso, 2014. "Ownership Structure and Literacy: Evidence Across Spanish Districts in Late 19th Century," Review of Economics and Institutions, Universit√† di Perugia, vol. 5(2).
  • Handle: RePEc:pia:review:v:5:y:2014:i:2:n:4

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    More about this item


    ownership; education; Spain;

    JEL classification:

    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O43 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Institutions and Growth
    • N33 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - Europe: Pre-1913


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