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Estimating saving and investment functions in Pakistan


  • Mohammad Afzal

    (Department of Economics, Gomal University, D.I. Khan, Pakistan)


This paper estimates simultaneously the saving and investment functions for Pakistan for the period 1960-2003. Compared with other Asian countries, Pakistan has not experienced adequate growth in national savings. Growth of real GDP, real per capita income, foreign capital inflow and investment are found to be the major determinants of savings. The findings support the “displacement hypothesis”. On the other hand, macroeconomic stability, inflation, availability of domestic credit, exchange rate, and foreign and national saving have been found to be the most crucial factors influencing the investment environment. Macroeconomic stability and the pursuit of sound macroeconomic policies can augment both saving and investment.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohammad Afzal, 2004. "Estimating saving and investment functions in Pakistan," Philippine Review of Economics, University of the Philippines School of Economics and Philippine Economic Society, vol. 41(1), pages 67-78, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:phs:prejrn:v:41:y:2004:i:1:p:67-78

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Svensson, Lars E. O., 1999. "Inflation targeting as a monetary policy rule," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 607-654, June.
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    3. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1995. "Financial Markets and Monetary Policy," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262061740, January.
    4. George A. Kahn & Klara Parrish, 1998. "Conducting monetary policy with inflation targets," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 5-32.
    5. Barro, Robert J, 1978. "Unanticipated Money, Output, and the Price Level in the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(4), pages 549-580, August.
    6. Michael J. Dueker & Andreas M. Fischer, 1998. "A guide to nominal feedback rules and their use for monetary policy," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jul, pages 55-63.
    7. Mervyn Allister King, 1998. "The Inflation Target Five Years On," FMG Special Papers sp99, Financial Markets Group.
    8. Fair, Ray C, 1978. "A Criticism of One Class of Macroeconomic Models with Rational Expectations," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 10(4), pages 411-417, November.
    9. Kydland, Finn E & Prescott, Edward C, 1977. "Rules Rather Than Discretion: The Inconsistency of Optimal Plans," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(3), pages 473-491, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. AFZAL, Muhammad, 2013. "National Savings And Foreign Capital In Pakistan," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 13(2), pages 197-206.

    More about this item


    saving; investment; macroeconomic policy;

    JEL classification:

    • E21 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Consumption; Saving; Wealth
    • E22 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Investment; Capital; Intangible Capital; Capacity
    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development


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