IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

The Matrix of Romania’s Underground Economy. Working without Legal Documents

Listed author(s):
  • Condrea Elena


    („Ovidius” University of Constanta, Romania Faculty of Economics Sciences)

According to financial analysis conducted by the authorities, working without legal papers or "in black" is one of the main components of the underground economy matrix and one of the main crimes generating "dirty money". The most common manifestation of the "black" employment refers to under declared employment, which is exercised at the limit of the relevant laws, with negative repercussions both upon the state budget and health insurance budget and therefore the general consolidated budget. The causes of "black" employment are extremely varied, have a multifactorial determination and take the economic situation of the employee and employer at any given time, the level of their training and last but not least, the legal framework and enforcement regime. According to a recent World Bank study, 45% of Romanian employees receive at least part of their salary in an envelope, and as in the public sector there is no black or gray employment, that the private sector, at least 60% of employees receive money for which they do not pay taxes. In this study we tried to highlight some of the causes and factors that determine and influence at the same time "black" employment and features some of the manifestations of the informal economy in Romania.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Article provided by Ovidius University of Constantza, Faculty of Economic Sciences in its journal Ovidius University Annals, Economic Sciences Series.

Volume (Year): XII (2012)
Issue (Month): 1 (May)
Pages: 467-472

in new window

Handle: RePEc:ovi:oviste:v:xii:y:2012:i:12:p:467-472
Contact details of provider: Web page:

More information through EDIRC

No references listed on IDEAS
You can help add them by filling out this form.

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ovi:oviste:v:xii:y:2012:i:12:p:467-472. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gheorghiu Gabriela)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.